Ch.8: RNA and Protein Synthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.8: RNA and Protein Synthesis Deck (49):
1

The synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template

transcription

2

forms an integral part of ribosomes, the cellular machinery for protein synthesis.

Ribosomal RNA

3

Type of Rna that is also involved in the protein synthesis

transfer RNA

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4

Type of RNA that carries the coded information for making specific proteins from DNA to ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized

Messenger RNA

5

During transription, a strand of _______ is synthesized using a specific portion of the cell's DNA template

mRNA

6

The process of transcription require both an enzyme called _____ _________, and a supply of RNA nucleotides.

RNA polymerase

7

Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to the DNA at a site called the _________

promoter

8

How many strands of the DNA are used as the template for transcription to occur?

only one of the two strands serve as the template for RNA synthesis

9

RNA is synthesized in which direction>

5' -------> 3' direction

10

RNA synthesis continues until RNA polymerase reaches a site on the DNA called the ________

terminator

11

________ _____ acts as an intermediate between the permanent storage form, DNA.

Messenger RNA

12

____________ : Protein synthesis; involves decoding the "language" of nucleic acids and converting that information into the "language" proteins.

translation

13

The language of mRNA is in the form of ________, groups of three nucleotides such as AUG, CGC, or AAA. Each XXXX codes for a particular amino acid,

codons

14

Code for amino acids

sense codons

15

Codes that signal the end of the protein's molecules synthesis. UAG, UAA, and UGA.

nonsense codons

16

The start codon that initiates the synthesis of the protein molecule is ____, which is also the codon for methionine

AUG

17

The site of translation is the _________ and ___________ molecules both recognize the specific codons and transport the required amino acids.

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ribosome and transfer RNA

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18

a sequence of three bases that is complementary to a codon.

anticodon

19

What is the function of the ribosome during translation.

they function to direct the orderly binding of tRNA's to codons and to assemble amino acids brought there into a chain.

20

In eukaryotic cells, where does transcription take place?

nucleus

21

In prokaryotic cells, where does the transcription take place?

cytoplasm

22

Where does eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation occur?

cytoplasm

23

Is RNA a double stranded form or a single stranded form

single stranded

24

a permanent change in the base sequence of DNA

mutation

25

The most common type of mutation involving single base pairs is _____ _________ (point mutations) in which a single base at one point in the DNA sequence is replaced with a different base.

base substitution

26

a point mutation which leads to a change in the amino acid

missense mutation

27

a point mutation which leads to a stop codon

nonsense mutation

28

caused by an addition or deletion of 1 or 2 consecutive bases, which leads to a shift in the codons

frameshift mutation

29

Many simple mutations are _______; the change in DNA base sequence causes no change in the activity of the product encoded by the gene. Commonly occur when one nucleotide is substituted for another in the DNA,

silent mutation

30

Spontaneous mutations occur

naturally
randomly
infrequently

31

By what process do spontaneous point mutations arise

during DNA replication

32

Why are spontaneous mutations rare in living organisms

because DNA polymerase proofreads and corrects the mistake.

33

probability that a mutation
will be observed in a given gene each time
a cell divides

rate of mutation

34

rate of gene mutation can range from

1 in 10,000 (10-4) to 1 in a trillion (10-12)

35

nucleotide sequence of genome of an organism

genotype

36

observable properties of an organism
changes in genotype lead to changes in phenotype, but not all genotype changes result in a phenotype

phenotype

37

True or False?
Frameshift mutations typically lead to nonsense mutations (early stop codon) or a very different amino acid sequence – almost always leads to a
non-functional protein.

TRUE

38

True or false?
Note that not all missense mutations, amino acid insertions/deletions lead to a change in the shape and/or function of a protein .It depends on where in the protein the change occurs. It depends on the individual protein.

TRUE

39

MUTATIONS ARISE:

spontaneously
induced by chemical agents, nitrous acid and ethidium bromide
induced by radiation

40

_______ _____ transfer occurs when genes are passed from an organism to its offspring. Plants and animals transfer their genes by this type of transmission

vertical gene transfer

41

Bacteria can pass their genes not only to their offspring but also laterally to other microbes of the same generation, this is known as ______ _____ _______.

horizontal gene transfer

42

The horizontal gene transfer involves two types of cell

a donor cell that gives a portion of its total DNA to a recipient cell.

43

Three mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer:

transformation
conjugation
transduction

44

Process of Transformation:

- genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as "naked" DNA
- living cell involved and DNA in the environment
-take up fragments of DNA by recombination

45

During transformation, a protein called ____ binds to the cell's DNA and then to donor DNA causing the exchange of strands.

recA

46

Process of Conjugation:

- "bacterial sex"
-mediated by one of kind of plasmid
- direct cell to cell contact. do not lose its plasmid just makes copy of it
-involves generally two opposite mating type
- donor cell must carry plasmid and sex pilli
-main method of transferring antibiotic resistance gene

47

The process where bacterial DNA is transferred from a donor cell to a recipient cell inside a virus that infects bacteria called bacteriophage or phage. Once attached it injects its DNA and gets intergrated in the host cell.

transduction

48

bacteriophages target bacteria. What does their structure consist of

hexagonal head that contains the phage's genetic material
tails that allow it to attach to the bacteria

49

PLASMID CHARACTERISTICS

-circular pieces of DNA that are separate from the bacteria chromosome
-some have it some dont
-any gene it carries it is resistant to it
-able to replicate on its own. INDEPENDENT.