The synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template
forms an integral part of ribosomes, the cellular machinery for protein synthesis.
Type of Rna that is also involved in the protein synthesis
Type of RNA that carries the coded information for making specific proteins from DNA to ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized
During transription, a strand of _______ is synthesized using a specific portion of the cell's DNA template
The process of transcription require both an enzyme called _____ _________, and a supply of RNA nucleotides.
Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to the DNA at a site called the _________
How many strands of the DNA are used as the template for transcription to occur?
only one of the two strands serve as the template for RNA synthesis
RNA is synthesized in which direction>
5' -------> 3' direction
RNA synthesis continues until RNA polymerase reaches a site on the DNA called the ________
________ _____ acts as an intermediate between the permanent storage form, DNA.
____________ : Protein synthesis; involves decoding the "language" of nucleic acids and converting that information into the "language" proteins.
The language of mRNA is in the form of ________, groups of three nucleotides such as AUG, CGC, or AAA. Each XXXX codes for a particular amino acid,
Code for amino acids
Codes that signal the end of the protein's molecules synthesis. UAG, UAA, and UGA.
The start codon that initiates the synthesis of the protein molecule is ____, which is also the codon for methionine
The site of translation is the _________ and ___________ molecules both recognize the specific codons and transport the required amino acids.
ribosome and transfer RNA
a sequence of three bases that is complementary to a codon.
What is the function of the ribosome during translation.
they function to direct the orderly binding of tRNA's to codons and to assemble amino acids brought there into a chain.
In eukaryotic cells, where does transcription take place?
In prokaryotic cells, where does the transcription take place?
Where does eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation occur?
Is RNA a double stranded form or a single stranded form
a permanent change in the base sequence of DNA
The most common type of mutation involving single base pairs is _____ _________ (point mutations) in which a single base at one point in the DNA sequence is replaced with a different base.
a point mutation which leads to a change in the amino acid
a point mutation which leads to a stop codon
caused by an addition or deletion of 1 or 2 consecutive bases, which leads to a shift in the codons
Many simple mutations are _______; the change in DNA base sequence causes no change in the activity of the product encoded by the gene. Commonly occur when one nucleotide is substituted for another in the DNA,
Spontaneous mutations occur
By what process do spontaneous point mutations arise
during DNA replication
Why are spontaneous mutations rare in living organisms
because DNA polymerase proofreads and corrects the mistake.
probability that a mutation
will be observed in a given gene each time
a cell divides
rate of mutation
rate of gene mutation can range from
1 in 10,000 (10-4) to 1 in a trillion (10-12)
nucleotide sequence of genome of an organism
observable properties of an organism
changes in genotype lead to changes in phenotype, but not all genotype changes result in a phenotype
True or False?
Frameshift mutations typically lead to nonsense mutations (early stop codon) or a very different amino acid sequence – almost always leads to a
True or false?
Note that not all missense mutations, amino acid insertions/deletions lead to a change in the shape and/or function of a protein .It depends on where in the protein the change occurs. It depends on the individual protein.
induced by chemical agents, nitrous acid and ethidium bromide
induced by radiation
_______ _____ transfer occurs when genes are passed from an organism to its offspring. Plants and animals transfer their genes by this type of transmission
vertical gene transfer
Bacteria can pass their genes not only to their offspring but also laterally to other microbes of the same generation, this is known as ______ _____ _______.
horizontal gene transfer
The horizontal gene transfer involves two types of cell
a donor cell that gives a portion of its total DNA to a recipient cell.
Three mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer: