Ch. 10: Classification of Microorganisms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 10: Classification of Microorganisms Deck (25):
1

Taxonomy

The science of the classification of organisms

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Phylogeny

The evolutionary history of a group of organisms; phylogenetic relationships are evolutionary relationships

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Systematics

The science organizing groups of organisms into a hierarchy

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The Three Domains

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya

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Bacteria

Domain of prokaryotic organisms, characterized by peptidoglycan cell walls

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Archaea

Domain of prokaryotic cells lacking peptidoglycan

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Eukarya

All eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi, and protists)

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Phylogenetic Tree of Life

is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities

Furthest from root of tree is the most recently evolved

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discovered the domain Archae

Carl Woese

generated by comparing conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences

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Molecular Clock

an evolution timeline based on nucleotide sequences in organisms

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Scientific Nomenclature

Genus and Specific Epithet

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Taxonomic Hierarchy

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Strain (subspecies)

Linnaeus developed

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Prokaryotic Species

A population of cells that share certain rRNA sequences; in conventional biochemical testing, it is a population of cells with similar characteristics

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Culture

Grown in laboratory media

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Clone

Population of cells derived from a single cell

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Strain

Genetically different cells within a clone

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Classification

Placing organisms in groups of related species

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Identification

Matching characteristics of an "unknown" organism to lists of known organisms

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Identification Methods

Morphological Characteristics
Differential Staining
Biochemical Tests
Serology
Phage typing
DNA Composition

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Morphological Characteristics

Useful for identifying eukaryotes

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Differential staining

Gram staining, acid-fast staining

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Biochemical Tests

Determines presence of bacterial enzymes

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Serology

Based on specific antibody binding to a microbe

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Phage typing

a phage is a bacterial virus that infects specific bacteria

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DNA Composition

The moles percentage of guanine plus cytosine in an organism's DNA