Chap 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap 15 Deck (77)
1

A foreign molecule that causes a specific immune response is a/an


A. PAMP

B. Marker

C. Hapten

D. Antibody

E. Antigen

E

2

Acquired specific immunity involves the response of


A. Skin barriers

B. B and C lymphocytes

C. Lysozyme

D. Mucus membranes

E. Interferon

B

3

The embryonic yolk sac, the liver and the bone marrow are sites where


A. Immune responses to antigen occur

B. Stem cells give rise to immature lymphocytes

C. Antigen is filtered from the blood

D. Antigen is filtered from tissue fluid

E. T lymphocytes complete maturation

B

4

The progeny cells of a B-cell clone are called


A. Antibodies

B. Sensitized T cells

C. Activated macrophages

D. Plasma cells

E. Bursa cells

D

5

Helper T cells


A. Secrete antibodies

B. Function in allergic reactions

C. Directly destroy target cells

D. Suppress immune reactions

E. Activate B cells and other T cells

E

6

Plasma cells


A. Secrete antibodies

B. Function in allergic reactions

C. Directly destroy target cells

D. Suppress immune reactions

E. Activate B cells and other T cells

A

7

Lymphocyte maturation involves


A. Hormonal signals that initiate development

B. B cells maturing in bone marrow sites

C. T cells maturing in the thymus

D. Release of mature lymphocytes to begin migration to various lymphoid organs

E. All of the choices are correct

E

8

What type of cells secrete antibodies?


A. B-cells

B. Cytotoxic T-cells

C. Plasma cells

D. Helper T-cells

E. Antigen-presenting cells

C

9

Cell surface markers involved in immune reactions


A. Are the result of genetic expression

B. Function in recognition of self molecules

C. Receive and transmit chemical messages among other cells of the system

D. Aid in cellular development

E. All of the choices are correct

E

10

The major histocompatability complex is:


A. Glycoproteins, called MHC antigens, found on all body cells

B. A set of genes that code for MHC glycoproteins

C. Found on the third chromosome

D. Located in the thymus gland

E. ALL of the choices are correct

B

11

Class II MHC genes code for


A. Certain secreted complement components

B. Self receptors recognized by T lymphocytes

C. All HLA antigens

D. Receptors located primarily on macrophages and B cells

E. All of the choices are correct

D

12

Class I MHC genes code for


A. Certain secreted complement components

B. Self receptors recognized by T lymphocytes

C. All HLA antigens

D. Receptors located primarily on macrophages and B cells

E. All of the choices are correct

B

13

The histocompatibility complex proteins function in


A. Recognition of self

B. Antibody proliferation

C. B-cell maturation

D. T-cell maturation

E. None of the choices are correct

A

14

MHC molecules are found on each of the following cells except


A. Leukocytes

B. Eosinophils

C. Epithelial cells

D. Red blood cells

E. Islet of langerhans cells

D

15

Lymphocytes


A. Possess MHC antigens for recognizing self

B. Have membrane receptors that recognize foreign antigens

C. Gain tolerance to self by destruction of lymphocytes that could react against self

D. Develop into clones of B and T cells with extreme variations of specificity

E. All of the choices are correct

E

16

The monomer subunit of immunoglobulin molecules has all the following except


A. Two identical heavy polypeptide chains

B. Two identical light polypeptide chains

C. Disulfide bonds between polypeptide chains

D. Four antigen binding sites

E. A variable and constant region on each polypeptide chain

D

17

The region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly varied from one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the


A. Variable region

B. Joining region

C. Constant region

D. Light region

E. Hinge region

A

18

Which of the following is not true of the antigen-independent period of lymphocyte development?


A. Lymphocytes form from stem cells in the bone marrow

B. Random genetic rearrangements occur to produce different surface protein receptors

C. Mature lymphocytes populate lymphatic organs and encounter antigens

D. Lymphocytes with specificity for self are destroyed

E. Many lymphocytes with different specificities are formed

C

19

Destruction of lymphocytes with self-specificity is called


A. Immune tolerance

B. Proliferation

C. Clonal selection

D. Differentiation

E. Hypersensitivity

A

20

Properties of effective antigens include all the following except


A. Foreign to the immune system

B. Molecular complexity

C. Large molecules with a minimum molecular weight of 1,000

D. Large polymers made up of repeating subunits

E. Cells or large, complex molecules

D

21

The molecular fragment on an antigen molecule that a lymphocyte recognizes and responds to is called a/an


A. Epitope

B. Hapten

C. Antigen binding site

D. Variable region

E. None of the choices are correct

A

22

Small foreign molecules that are too small by themselves to elicit an immune response are termed


A. Epitope

B. Hapten

C. Antigen binding site

D. Variable region

E. None of the choices are correct

B

23

Superantigens are


A. Body tissues that the immune system mistakes as foreign

B. Cell markers found in some member of a species but not in other members

C. Bacterial toxins that activate T cells at a 100 times greater rate than other antigens

D. Those that evoke allergic reactions

E. None of the choices are correct

C

24

Antigens that elicit allergic reactions are called


A. Superantigens

B. Heterophilic antigens

C. Allergens

D. Autoantigens

E. None of the choices are correct

C

25

Which of the following is not a property of B cells?


A. Produce plasma cells and memory cells

B. Low numbers circulating in the blood

C. Require antigen presented with MHC proteins

D. Receptors called immunoglobins

E. Mature in the bone marrow

C

26

Antigen presenting cells


A. Include dendritic cells

B. Include macrophages

C. Engulf and modify antigen to be more immunogenic

D. Hold and present processed antigen on their cell membrane surface

E. All of the choices are correct

E

27

T cell response to T-cell-dependent antigens requires


A. Typically a protein antigen

B. Binding of T cell to a Class II MHC receptor on a macrophage

C. Binding of T cell to a site on the antigen

D. Interleukin-1 activating the T helper cell

E. All of the choices are correct

E

28

During presentation of APC-bound antigen, macrophages and dendritic cells secrete the cytokine, _____, that activates T helper cells.


A. Interferon

B. Interleukin 1

C. Interleukin 2

D. Histamine

E. None of the choices are correct

B

29

Which is incorrect about the Fc region of an immunoglobulin?


A. Is called the crystallizable fragment

B. Forms the antigen binding sites

C. Contains an effector molecule that can bind to cells such as macrophages and mast cells

D. Contains an effector molecule that can fix complement

E. Determines the class to which the immunoglobulin belongs

B

30

Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule thereby disrupting their activity?


A. Neutralization

B. Opsonization

C. Complement fixation

D. Agglutination

E. Anamnestic response

A

31

Which process involves antibodies cross-linking cells or particles into large aggregates?


A. Neutralization

B. Opsonization

C. Complement fixation

D. Agglutination

E. Anamnestic response

D

32

Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?


A. Neutralization

B. Opsonization

C. Complement fixation

D. Agglutination

E. Anamnestic response

B

33

Which process involves a more rapid synthesis and greatly increased titer of antibody when the immune system is subsequently exposed to the same antigen?


A. Neutralization

B. Opsonization

C. Complement fixation

D. Agglutination

E. Anamnestic response

E

34

The immunoglobulin class that has a dimer form found in mucus, saliva, colostrum and other body secretions is


A. IgA

B. IgD

C. IgE

D. IgG

E. IgM

A

35

The immunoglobulin class that is the only one capable of crossing the placenta is


A. IgA

B. IgD

C. IgE

D. IgG

E. IgM

D

36

The immunoglobulin class that has an Fc region that binds to receptors on basophils and mast cells is


A. IgA

B. IgD

C. IgE

D. IgG

E. IgM

C

37

All of the following are characteristics of IgM except


A. Has 10 antigen binding sites

B. Contains a central J chain

C. Is the first class synthesized by a plasma cell

D. Can serve as a B-cell receptor

E. Is a dimer

E

38

Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?


A. IgM only

B. IgG only

C. IgD only

D. IgM and IgG

E. IgE and IgA

D

39

The immunoglobulin/s found on the surface of B cells is/are


A. IgM only

B. IgG only

C. IgD only

D. IgM and IgD

E. IgD and IgE

D

40

Monoclonal antibodies


A. Originate from a single B cell clone

B. Have a single specificity for antigen

C. Are secreted by hybridomas

D. Are used in immunology lab tests and cancer therapy

E. All of the choices are correct

E

41

_____ is the most abundant class of antibodies in serum.


A. IgG

B. IgM

C. IgA

D. IgD

E. IgE

A

42

A hybridoma results from the fusion of a myeloma cell with a normal _____ cell.


A. B cell

B. Cytotoxic T cell

C. Natural killer T cell

D. Helper T cell

E. None of the choices are correct

A

43

Each _____ fragment of an antibody molecule contains the variable regions of a heavy and light chain that folds into a groove for one epitope.


A. Variable

B. Fab

C. Fc

D. Terminal

E. Hinge

B

44

An activated TH cell produces ___ which is a growth factor for T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells.


A. Interleukin-1

B. Interleukin-2

C. Interleukin-12

D. Antiserum

E. Complement

B

45

What process provides many B cells and T cells that are activated against specific antigens?


A. Antigen expression

B. Antibody production

C. Clonal expansion

D. Antigen presentation

E. Opsonization

C

46

The most significant cells in graft rejection are


A. Helper T cells

B. Suppressor T cells

C. Cytotoxic T cells

D. Delayed hypersensitivity T cells

E. Natural killer (NK) cells

C

47

Which lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus-infected cells?


A. Helper T cells

B. Suppressor T cells

C. Cytotoxic T cells

D. Delayed hypersensitivity T cells

E. Natural killer (NK) cells

E

48

Cytotoxic T cells


A. Are activated by antigens

B. Lack specificity for antigen

C. Secrete granzymes and perforins that damage target cells

D. Secrete interleukin-2 to stimulate B and T cells

E. All of the choices are correct

C

49

Which of the following is not a target for TC cells?


A. Bacteria

B. Virus infected cells

C. Cancer cells

D. Human transplanted liver

E. Pig transplanted heart

A

50

The beauty of specific immunity is the production of ____ that provides long-lasting protection


A. Antibodies

B. Plasma cells

C. T helper cells

D. Memory cells

E. Phagocytotic cells

D

51

An example of artificial passive immunity would be


A. Chickenpox infection is followed by lifelong immunity

B. Chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to chickenpox

C. Giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease

D. A fetus acquiring maternal IgG to the chickenpox virus across the placenta

E. None of the choices are correct

C

52

An example of natural passive immunity would be


A. Chickenpox infection is followed by lifelong immunity

B. Chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to chickenpox

C. Giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease

D. A fetus acquiring maternal IgG to the chickenpox virus across the placenta

E. None of the choices are correct

D

53

An example of artificial active immunity would be


A. Chickenpox infection is followed by lifelong immunity

B. Chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to chickenpox

C. Giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease

D. A fetus acquiring maternal IgG to the chickenpox virus across the placenta

E. None of the choices are correct

B

54

An example of natural active immunity would be


A. Chickenpox infection is followed by lifelong immunity

B. Chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to chickenpox

C. Giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease

D. A fetus acquiring maternal IgG to the chickenpox virus across the placenta

E. None of the choices are correct

A

55

Edward Jenner's work involved


A. Inoculation of dried pus from smallpox pustules into a person to stimulate immunity

B. Development of passive immunotherapy

C. Development of an immunization to protect people against cowpox

D. Immunization using a related, less pathogenic organism to give protection against a more pathogenic one

E. All of the choices are correct

D

56

Immunotherapy is the


A. Use of antitoxins

B. Use of immune serum globulin

C. Conferring of passive immunity

D. Administering of preformed antibodies

E. All of the choices are correct

E

57

High titers of specific antibodies are components of


A. Specific immune globulin (SIG)

B. Gamma globulin

C. Immune serum globulin (ISG)

D. Attenuated vaccines

E. Toxoids

A

58

Killed or inactivated vaccines are prepared by


A. Removal of virulence genes from the microbe

B. Treatment with formalin, heat or radiation

C. Passage of the pathogen through unnatural hosts or tissue culture

D. Long-term subculturing of the microbe

E. All of the choices are correct

B

59

Live, attenuated vaccines


A. Include the Sabin polio vaccine

B. Include the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR)

C. Contain viable microbes that can multiply in the person

D. Require smaller doses and fewer boosters compared to inactivated vaccines

E. All of the choices are correct

E

60

Acellular vaccines and subunit vaccines


A. Contain modified bacterial exotoxin molecules

B. Are always genetically engineered

C. Contain select antigenic components of a pathogen rather than whole cells or viruses

D. Confer passive immunity

E. Utilize DNA strands that will produce the antigen

C

61

Antitoxins


A. Contain modified bacterial exotoxin molecules

B. Are always genetically engineered

C. Contain select antigenic components of a pathogen rather than whole cells or viruses

D. Confer passive immunity

E. Utilize DNA strands that will produce the antigen

D

62

Vaccinia virus is often used in the technique to make


A. Adjuvant

B. Booster

C. Antibodies to toxin

D. Gamma globulin

E. "Trojan horse" recombinant vaccine

E

63

Which of the following is a special binding substance that enhances immunogenicity and prolongs antigen retention at the injection site?


A. Adjuvant

B. Booster

C. Antibodies to toxin

D. Gamma globulin

E. "Trojan horse" recombinant vaccine

A

64

When antibody is covering the foreign microorganism then complement may be activated via this___ pathway.


A. Classical

B. Lectin

C. Alternative

D. Interleukin

A

65

All nucleated cells contain___.


A. Class I MHC

B. Class II MHC

C. Secretory antibodies

D. IgE receptors

A

66

During which response to the antigen do we display a latent period of no secretory antibody synthesis?


A. primary

B. secondary

C. tertiary

D. quaternary

A

67

True or False
Antibody molecules circulate in lymph, blood and tissue fluids

True

68

True or False
Human B lymphocytes mature in an intestinal region called the bursa

False

69

True or False
Activation of B cells occurs when antigen binds to B cell surface immunoglobulin receptors

True

70

True or False
Clonal selection requires the presence of foreign antigens

True

71

True or False
Antibodies directed to alloantigen from one organism often cross-react with an alloantigen from another organism

False

72

True or False
After secreting antibodies during an immune response, plasma cells then differentiate into memory cells

False

73

True or False
The hinge region of an antibody has a hypervariable amino acid region where the antigenic determinant fits

False

74

True or False
The structural and functional differences that distinguish immunoglobulin isotypes are due to variations associated with their Fc fragments

True

75

True or False
One plasma cell will secrete antibodies of various classes but the antibodies will all have the same specificity

True

76

True or False
The secondary response to an antigen is faster and bigger than the primary response

True

77

True or False
Gamma globulin can be given as immunotherapy to confer artificial passive immunity

True