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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (92)
1

Which of the following microbial forms have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls?


A. Naked viruses

B. Protozoan cysts

C. Fungal spores

D. Bacterial endospores

E. Yeast

D

2

The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores on inanimate objects is


A. Disinfection

B. Sterilization

C. Antisepsis

D. Sanitization

E. Degermation

B

3

The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce microorganisms and debris to safe levels is


A. Disinfection

B. Sterilization

C. Antisepsis

D. Sanitization

E. Degermation

E

4

The use of a physical or chemical process to destroy vegetative pathogens is


A. Disinfection

B. Sterilization

C. Antisepsis

D. Sanitization

E. Degermation

A

5

The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens is


A. Disinfection

B. Sterilization

C. ANTISEPSIS

D. Sanitization

E. Degermation

C

6

Scrubbing or immersing the skin in chemicals to reduce the numbers of microbes on the skin is


A. Disinfection

B. Sterilization

C. Antisepsis

D. Sanitization

E. Degermation

C

7

Which of the following types of control agents would be used to achieve sterility?

A. Virucide

B. Bactericide

C. Germicide

D. Sporicide

E. Fungicide

D

8

The easiest microbial forms to kill or inhibit are

A. Naked viruses

B. Vegetative bacteria and fungi

C. Endospores

D. Protozoan cysts

E. Mycobacteria and staphylococci

B

9

The method of removing vegetative microbial life forms from inanimate objects is termed

A. Antisepsis

B. Disinfection

C. Sterilization

D. Decontamination

E. Degerming

C

10

The method of removing vegetative life forms from living surfaces is termed

A. Antisepsis

B. Disinfection

C. Sterilization

D. Decontamination

E. Fegerming

A

11

The removal of all life forms from inanimate objects is termed

A. Antisepsis

B. Disinfection

C. Sterilization

D. Decontamination

E. Degerming

C

12

The betadine swab before blood donation in an example of

A. Antisepsis

B. Disinfection

C. Sterilization

D. Decontamination

E. Degerming

A

13

The alcohol wipe before an injection is an example of

A. Antisepsis

B. Disinfection

C. Sterilization

D. Decontamination

E. Degerming

E

14

14. A cleansing method that mechanically removes microbes and other debris to reduce contamination is


A. Disinfection

B. Sterilization

C. Antisepsis

D. Sanitization

E. Degermation

D

15

Which is correct regarding the rate of microbial death?


A. Cells die at increasingly greater rates

B. Only older cells die in a culture

C. Cells in a culture die at a constant rate

D. Upon contact with the control agent, all cells die at one time

E. Cells become metabolically inactive but are never killed

C

16

Which of the following factors will influence the action of microbial agents?


A. The number of microorganisms

B. The kind of microorganisms

C. Temperature and pH

D. Mode and dosage of the agent

E. All of these will influence the action


E

17

17. Microbial death occurs when there is


A. No movement

B. No reproduction

C. A change in appearance

D. A decrease in size

E. All of these occur


B

18

18. Each of the following is the target of antimicrobial agents except


A. Cell walls

B. Cell membranes

C. Ribosomes

D. Cellular proteins

E. Cytoplasm


E

19

Surfactants work by


A. Coating the organism preventing interaction with its environment

B. Blocking transport into the organism

C. Blocking transport out from the organism

D. Disrupting membrane integrity

E. All of the choices are correct

D

20

Agents that can denature microbial proteins include all of the following except


A. Moist heat

B. Alcohol

C. Acids

D. Metallic ions

E. X-rays

E

21

Which of the following does not affect microbial nucleic acids?


A. Moist heat

B. Ultraviolet light

C. X-rays

D. Ethylene dioxide

E. Formaldehyde

A

22

Physical agents for controlling microbial growth include all the following except


A. Ultraviolet radiation

B. Boiling water

C. HEPA filters

D. Pasteurization

E. Hydrogen peroxide

E

23

Sterilization is achieved by


A. Flash pasteurization

B. Hot water

C. Boiling water

D. Steam autoclave

E. All of the choices are correct

D

24

Some microbial control agents are able to _____ cell proteins by breaking bonds that maintain the native state, three-dimensional configuration of the proteins.


A. Denature

B. Bind

C. Dissolve

D. All of the choices are correct

A

25

Dry heat


A. Is less efficient than moist heat

B. Cannot sterilize

C. Includes tyndallization

D. Is used in devices called autoclaves

E. Will sterilize at 121° C for 15 minutes

A

26

The minimum sterilizing conditions in a steam autoclave are


A. 121°C at 15 psi for 15 minutes

B. 63°C for 30 minutes

C. 160°C for 2 hours

D. 71.6°C for 15 seconds

E. 100°C for 30 minutes

A

27

The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature is called the


A. Thermal death point (TDP)

B. Thermal death time (TDT)

C. Sporicidal time

D. Death phase point

E. None of the choices are correct

B

28

The lowest temperature needed to kill all microbes in 10 minutes is the


A. Thermal death point (TDP)

B. Thermal death time (TDT)

C. Sporicidal time

D. Death phase point

E. None of the choices are correct

A

29

Disinfection of beverages such as apple juice, milk and wine is optimally achieved by


A. Pasteurization

B. Chlorination

C. Moist heat autoclave

D. Filtration

E. Boiling water

A

30

Placing organisms at 4oC is


A. Bacteriocidal

B. Bacteriostatic

C. Decontamination

D. Sterilization

E. None of the choices are correct

B

31

Pasteurization


A. Kills all vegetative forms

B. Reduces number of vegetative forms

C. Reduces number of endospores

D. Increases food nutrient value

E. None of the choices are correct

B

32

_____ heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to _____ heat.


A. High, dry

B. High, moist

C. Dry, moist

D. Moist, dry

E. Moist, high

D

33

A method for sterilizing milk, called _____ treatment, uses 134° C for 1 to 2 seconds.


A. Pasteurization

B. Batch pasteurization

C. Flash pasteurization

D. Ultra high temperature

E. None of the choices are correct

D

34

What instrument is most effective for pressure-temperature sterilization?


A. Oven

B. Autoclave

C. Water-bath

D. Bunsen burner

E. Incubator

B

35

Intermittent sterilization, which uses three days of lower temperature steam for short periods of time is also called


A. Pasteurization

B. Incubation

C. Tyndallization

D. Disinfection

E. Dessication

C

36

Which of the following is not a primary target of milk pasteurization?


A. Salmonella

B. Campylobacter jejuni

C. Lactobacilli

D. Listeria monocytogenes

E. Brucella

C

37

Vials of microorganisms that undergo the freeze-drying process called _____ will remain preserved and viable for years.


A. Desiccation

B. Flash freeze

C. Lyophilization

D. Pasteurization

E. Sterilization

D

38

Removal of moisture by dehydration is called


A. Desiccation

B. Flash freeze

C. Lyophilization

D. Pasteurization

E. Sterilization

A

39

_____ radiation excites atoms to a higher energy state within molecules such as DNA that then leads to the formation of pyrimidine dimers.


A. Infra red

B. Ultraviolet

C. Gamma

D. Particle

E. Ionizing

B

40

Electrons are ejected from atoms in cells when organisms are exposed to


A. Desiccation

B. Ultraviolet light

C. Ethyl alcohol

D. Hydrogen peroxide

E. Gamma rays and X rays

E

41

Which of the following items are typically irradiated in order to kill microbes?


A. Cured meats

B. Human tissues such as heart valves and skin

C. Operating room air

D. Surgical gloves

E. All of the choices

E

42

Which control method would not be a suitable choice for killing Mycobacterium in a capped culture tube?


A. Ultraviolet (germicidal) light

B. Gamma rays

C. 121°C at 15 psi for 15 minutes

D. 160°C for 2 hours

E. All of the choices are correct

A

43

Place the following forms of radiation in order from the most penetrating to the least penetrating.


A. Gamma, Cathode, X-rays

B. Gamma, X-rays, Cathode

C. Cathode, Gamma, X-ray

D. Cathode, X-ray, Gamma

E. X-ray, Gamma, Cathode

B

44

HEPA filters are used to remove microbes from


A. Air

B. Liquids

C. Human tissues

D. Medical instruments

E. All of the choices are correct

A

45

Filtration sterilization


A. Can remove viruses

B. Relies on gravity

C. Removes toxins

D. Uses heat and filtration

E. All of the choices are correct

A

46

_____ is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them.


A. Boiling

B. Sterilization

C. Radiation

D. Filtration

E. Disinfection

D

47

Which of the following is not a factor that affects germicidal activity?


A. The material being treated

B. The length of exposure

C. The strength of the germicide

D. The microorganism being treated

E. All of these are factors

E

48

All of the following pertain to hypochlorites except


A. Release hypochlorous acid in solution

B. Cause denaturation of enzymes

C. Found in iodophors

D. Used to disinfect dairy, restaurant and medical equipment

E. Found in common household bleach

C

49

Iodophors include


A. Chloramines

B. Betadine

C. Tincture of iodine

D. Alcohols

E. Chlorhexidine

B

50

_____ is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage.


A. Iodine

B. Chlorine

C. Bromine

D. Fluorine

E. All of the choices are correct

B

51

Which of the following is not true of chloramines?


A. Contains chlorine

B. Can sanitize and disinfect

C. Form trihalomethanes with organic compounds

D. Is safer than free chlorine

E. Treats wounds and skin surfaces

C

52

All of the following are phenols or phenolics except


A. Lysol

B. Hexachlorophene

C. Triclosan

D. Cresols

E. Chloramines

C

53

increasingly for wound degerming, neonatal washes, hand scrubbing and prepping surgical skin sites is


A. Carbolic acid

B. Chlorhexidine

C. Triclosan

D. Formalin

E. Quarternary ammonium compounds

B

54

Which of the following germicides are also sporicidal?


A. Iodine

B. Chlorine

C. Phenolics

D. Chlorhexidine

E. Alcohol

A

55

Alcohols


A. Denature proteins when in a 50-95% alcohol-water solution

B. Disinfect items soaked in alcohol

C. Are skin degerming agents

D. At 50% or higher concentrations dissolve cell membrane lipids

E. All of the choices are correct

E

56

The chemical agent that produces highly reactive hydroxyl-free radicals and also decomposes to O2 gas is


A. Cidex

B. Cationic detergents

C. Hydrogen peroxide

D. Chlorhexidine

E. Iodophors

C

57

Hydrogen peroxide is


A. Sporicidal

B. Fungicidal

C. Bactericidal

D. Virucidal

E. All of these are correct

E

58

All the following act as surfactants except


A. Detergents

B. Soaps

C. Quaternary ammonia

D. Alcohols

E. Iodine

E

59

Which of the following is not a heavy metal?


A. Tincture of iodine

B. Merthiolate

C. Silver nitrate solutions

D. Zinc

E. Mercurochrome

D

60

_____ solution was introduced in the late nineteenth century for preventing gonococcal infections in a newborn's eyes after exposure to the mother's infected birth canal.


A. Merthiolate

B. Triclosan

C. Betadine

D. Silver nitrate

E. Zinc oxide

D

61

Heavy metals work by


A. Rupturing the cell membrane

B. Inactivating proteins

C. Binding to DNA

D. Dissolving the cell wall

E. Mutating DNA

B

62

Which of the following is not used as an antiseptic?


A. Iodophor

B. Chlorhexidine

C. 3% hydrogen peroxide

D. Merthiolate

E. Aqueous glutaraldehyde

E

63

Which of the following is not true of glutaraldehyde?


A. Classified as a carcinogen

B. Inactivates viruses

C. Does not damage plastics

D. Cross-links proteins on cell surfaces

E. Kills spores in 3 hours

A

64

Endospores can be killed by


A. Dry heat at 170° C for 2 hours

B. Incineration

C. Glutaraldehyde for 3 or more hours

D. Ethylene oxide for 3 or more hours

E. All of the choices are correct

A

65

Which is mismatched?


A. Sodium hypochlorite-chlorine

B. Iodophor-iodine

C. Benzalkonium chloride-quaternary ammonium compound

D. Merthiolate-silver

E. Formalin-formaldehyde

D

66

All of the following are alkylating control agents except


A. Ethylene oxide

B. Iodophor

C. Glutaraldehyde

D. Formaldehyde

E. Propylene oxide

B

67

The sterilizing gas used in chemiclaves is


A. Ethylene oxide

B. Iodophor

C. Glutaraldehyde

D. Formaldehyde

E. Chlorine dioxide

A

68

Ethylene oxide is


A. Sporicidal

B. Only effective with high heat

C. The active agent in household bleach

D. Used as an antiseptic against anaerobes

E. A halogen

A

69

Which of the following acids is not used to destroy or inhibit microbial cells in food?


A. Acetic acid

B. Benzoic acid

C. Lactic acid

D. Phosphoric acid

E. Propionic acid

D

70

Using a HEPA filter in a vacuum or furnace is an example of which microbial control method?


A. Physical agent

B. Mechanical method

C. Chemical agent

D. Gases

B

71

In lab inoculating loops are sterilized using:


A. Moist heat

B. Chemicals

C. Incineration

D. Filtration

C

72

Antimicrobial agents can target the cell wall by:


A. Blocking its synthesis

B. Digesting it

C. Denaturing proteins

D. All of these

D

73

Which of the following represents the use of osmotic pressure as a microbial control method?


A. Bleaching a kitchen counter

B. Salting of meat

C. Rinsing of a cut with Betadine

D. A and B

B

74

True or False
Microbicidal agents are sterilants.

False

75

True or False
Bacteriostatic agents kill bacterial cells

False

76

True or False
Prions require more extensive methods of sterilization than are needed for bacterial endospores.

True

77

True or False
The presence of organic matter such as saliva and pus can interfere with the actions of disinfectants.

True

78

True or False
When a control agent targets the metabolic processes of microbial cells, active younger cells typically die more rapidly than older cells

True

79

True or False
A microorganism that is not motile and has stopped metabolizing could be considered dead

False

80

True or False
Most microbial contaminants of food are killed at freezing temperatures

False

81

True or False
Pasteurization will make milk sterile

False

82

True or False
Pasteurization does not kill endospores or thermoduric microbes

False

83

True or False
Ionizing radiation is more effective than non-ionizing radiation in killing microbes.

True

84

True or False
Chlorine compounds remain stable and effective in the presence of excess organic matter

False

85

True or False
Alcohols are more effective at inactivating enveloped viruses than naked viruses

True

86

True or False
Isopropyl alcohol wiped across a skin site can sterilize it.

False

87

True or False
Hydrogen peroxide can be used to sterilize instruments such as endoscopes

True

88

True or False
Ozone is a very effective disinfectant

True

89

True or False
Soaps and detergents are very effective as sterilants.

False

90

True or False
Pseudomonas are resistant to soaps.

True

91

True or False
Chlorine and ethylene oxide are sterilizing gases

True

92

True or False
Analine dyes like crystal violet have antimicrobial activity particularly against gram positive bacteria and some fungi.

True