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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (59)
1

When humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms the process is called


A. Bioremediation

B. Genetic engineering

C. Epidemiology

D. Immunology

E. Taxonomy

B. Genetic Engineering

2

Which of the following is not considered a microorganism?


A. Mosquito

B. Protozoa

C. Bacteria

D. Viruses

E. Fungi

A. Mosquito

3

All microorganisms are best defined as organisms that


A. Cause human disease

B. Lack a cell nucleus

C. Are infectious particles

D. Are too small to be seen with the unaided eye

E. Can only be found growing in laboratories

D

4

Which activity is an example of biotechnology?


A. Bacteria in the soil secreting an antibiotic to kill competitors

B. A microbiologist using the microscope to study bacteria

C. Egyptians using moldy bread on wounds

D. Eschericia coli producing human insulin

E. Public health officials monitoring diseases in a community

D

5

Living things ordinarily too small to be seen with the unaided eye are termed


A. Bacteria

B. Viruses

C. Parasites

D. Microorganisms

E. None of the choices is correct

D

6

The study of the immune response to infection caused by microorganisms is


A. Hypersensitivity

B. Epidemiology

C. Immunology

D. Morbidity

E. Geomicrobiology

C

7

Which of the following does not indicate microbe involvement in energy and nutrient flow?


A. Formation of oxygen by an oxygenic photosynthesis

B. Formation of greenhouse gases

C. Formation of soil

D. Digestion of complex carbohydrates in animal diets

E. Decomposition of dead matter and wastes

A

8

The microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes are called


A. Decomposers

B. Prokaryotes

C. Pathogens

D. Eukaryotes

E. Fermenters

A

9

The microorganisms that do not have a nucleus in their cells are called


A. Decomposers

B. Prokaryotes

C. Pathogens

D. Eukaryotes

E. Fermenters

B

10

The first prokaryotes appeared about ___ billion years ago.


A. 5

B. 4

C. 3

D. 2

E. 1

B

11

Which of the following is not a human use of microorganisms?


A. Baking bread

B. Treating water and sewage

C. Breaking down chocolate

D. Mass producing antibiotics

E. Cleaning up oil spills

C

12

Using microbes to detoxify a site contaminated with heavy metals is an example of


A. Biotechnology

B. Bioremediation

C. Decomposition

D. Immunology

E. Epidemiology

B

13

Disease-causing microorganisms are called


A. Decomposers

B. Prokaryotes

C. Pathogens

D. Eukaryotes

E. Fermenters

C

14

The number one worldwide infectious diseases are


A. AIDS related diseases

B. Diarrhea diseases

C. Malaria diseases

D. Measles

E. Respiratory diseases

E

15

Which of the following is a unique characteristic of viruses that distinguishes them from the other major groups of microorganisms?


A. Cause human disease

B. Lack a nucleus

C. Cannot be seen without a microscope

D. Contain genetic material

E. Lack cell structure

E

16

Helminths are


A. Bacteria

B. Protozoa

C. Molds

D. Parasitic worms

E. Infectious particles

D

17

Organisms called parasites are


A. Always classified in the kingdom Monera

B. Always harmful to their host

C. The decomposers in ecosystems

D. Always a virus

E. Free-living

B

18

Which group of microorganisms is composed only of hereditary material wrapped in a protein covering?


A. Viruses

B. Bacteria

C. Parasites

D. Fungi

E. Yeasts

A

19

The Dutch merchant who made and used quality magnifying lenses to see and record microorganisms was


A. Francesco Redi

B. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

C. Louis Pasteur

D. Joseph Lister

E. Robert Koch

B

20

Which of the following is not a process in the scientific method?


A. Belief in a preconceived idea

B. Formulate a hypothesis

C. Systematic observation

D. Laboratory experimentation

E. Development of a theory

A

21

Experimentation


A. Is designed to refute an hypothesis

B. Is designed to support an hypothesis

C. Provides a means to gather subjective data

D. Provides a means to gather objective data

E. Is the first step in the scientific method

D

22

A scientist that constructs a hypothesis and then tests its validity by outlining predicted events of the hypothesis followed by experiments to test for those events is using the _____ approach.


A. Koch

B. Scientific method

C. Spontaneous generation

D. Taxonomic

E. None of the choices is correct

B

23

The scientific method includes all of the following except


A. Hypothesis

B. Experimentation

C. Observation

D. Control group

E. Theory

E

24

Koch's postulates are criteria used to establish that


A. Microbes are found on dust particles

B. A specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease

C. Life forms can only arise from preexisting life forms

D. A specific microbe should be classified in a specific kingdom

E. Microbes can be used to clean up toxic spills

B

25

The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery was


A. Joseph Lister

B. Ignaz Semmelweis

C. Robert Koch

D. Louis Pasteur

E. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

A

26

Sterile refers to


A. Pathogen free

B. Absence of spores

C. Absence of any life forms and viral particles

D. Pasteurized

E. Homogenized

C

27

Which scientist showed that anthrax was caused by the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis?


A. Joseph Lister

B. Ignaz Semmelweis

C. Robert Koch

D. Louis Pasteur

E. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

C

28

Taxonomy does not involve


A. Nomenclature

B. Classification

C. Taxa

D. Identification

E. Common name

E

29

Which scientific field is involved in the identification, classification and naming of organisms?


A. Nomenclature

B. Taxonomy

C. Phylogeny

D. Woesean classification

E. None of the choices is correct

B

30

The orderly arrangement of organisms into a hierarchy of taxa is called


A. Classification

B. Identification

C. Nomenclature

D. Experimentation

E. Biotechnology

A

31

Which of the following is a taxon that contains all the other taxa listed?


A. Species

B. Phylum

C. Kingdom

D. Genus

E. Family

C

32

The smallest and most significant taxon is


A. Genus

B. Species

C. Kingdom

D. Family

E. Phylum

B

33

Select the correct descending taxonomic hierarchy (left to right).


A. Family, order, class

B. Family, genus, species

C. Genus, species, family

D. Class, phylum, order

E. Kingdom, domain, phylum

B

34

Which of the following is a scientific name?


A. Gram positive streptococcus

B. Staphlococcus

C. Streptococcus pyogenes

D. Anthrax

E. Streptobacilli

C

35

When assigning a scientific name to an organism,


A. The species name is capitalized

B. The species name is placed first

C. The species name can be abbreviated

D. Both genus and species names are capitalized

E. Both genus and species names are italicized or underlined

E

36

The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called


A. Biotechnology

B. Genetics

C. Recombinant DNA

D. Phylogeny

E. Taxonomy

D

37

Which area of biology states that living things undergo gradual structural and functional changes over long periods of time?


A. Morphology

B. Phylogeny

C. Evolution

D. Genetics

E. None of the choices is correct

C

38

A scientist studying the sequence of nucleotides in the rRNA of a bacterial species is working on


A. Determining evolutionary relatedness

B. Bioremediation

C. Recombinant DNA

D. Nomenclature

E. Determining if that species is the cause of a new disease

A

39

The scientist/s that proposed that organisms be assigned to one of 3 domains is/are


A. Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur

B. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

C. Carl Woese and George Fox

D. Robert Whittaker

E. Francesco Redi

C

40

In Whittaker's system, the protozoa and algae are classified in the kingdom


A. Monera

B. Protist

C. Fungi

D. Plant

E. Animal

B

41

Which kingdom does not contain any eukaryotes?


A. Monera

B. Protist

C. Fungi

D. Plant

E. Animal

A

42

Who developed the first rabies vaccine in 1885?


A. Pasteur

B. Lister

C. Leeuwenhoek

D. Redi

A

43

Which scientific name is written correctly?


A. Staphylococcus aureus

B. staphylococcus aureus

C. Staphylococcus Aureus

D. Staphylococcus aureus

D

44

Traditional approaches to taxonomy involved observation of visible morphological characteristics. Today, however, new molecular methods include the examination of:


A. DNA

B. rRNA

C. proteins

D. All of these

D

45

T or F
A scientist studying helminths is working with bacteria

F

46

T or F
Members of the kingdom Fungi are photosynthetic

F

47

T or F
The fossil record has established that prokaryotes existed on earth for approximately 2 billion years before eukaryotes appeared

T

48

T or F
Many chronic conditions are found to be associated with microbial agents

T

49

T or F
All microorganisms are parasites

F

50

T or F
The scientific method involves formulating a tentative explanation, called the hypothesis, to account for what has been observed or measured

T

51

T or F
A hypothesis must be tested many times before it can be considered a theory.

T

52

T or F
The term sterile means free of all life forms

T

53

T or F
Members of the same species share many more characteristics compared to those shared by members of the same kingdom.

T

54

T or F
Once an organism is assigned to a particular taxonomic hierarchy, it is permanent and cannot be revised.

F

55

T or F
Viruses are not classified in any of Whittaker's 5 kingdoms

T

56

T or F
The names of the three proposed Domains are: Bacteria, Protista, Eukarya.

F

57

T or F
One distinguishing characteristic of the archaebacteria is that they live in extreme environments.

T

58

T or F
Microbes have been found existing in salty, acidic lakes

T

59

T or F
Researchers are trying to show if microbes can live in Antarctica glaciers perhaps they can live on planets with similar conditions.

T