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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (50)
1

Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism
A. Element
B. Macronutrient
C. Water
D. Growth factor
E. Trace element

B. Macronutrient

2

Microorganisms require small quantities of this nutrient for enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure
A. Element
B. Macronutrient
C. Water
D. Growth factors
E. Trace element

E. Trace element

3

What compound has the highest concentration in a cell?
A. CO2
B. CH4
C. H2O
D. Glucose
E. NH3

C. H2O

4

Most of the dry weight of a microbial cell is from
A. Inorganic compounds
B. Minerals
C. Water
D. Organic compounds
E. Salts

D. Organic compounds

5

Which of the following is not a major element of a microbial cell?
A. Copper
B. Carbon
C. Hydrogen
D. Nitrogen
E. Oxygen

A. Copper

6

An organic nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be provided is called a/an
A. Element
B. Macronutrient
C. Water
D. Growth factor
E. Trace element

D. Growth factor

7

An important mineral ion of the cytochrome pigments of cellular respiration is
A. Iron
B. Zinc
C. Calcium
D. Magnesium
E. Potassium

A. Iron

8

An important mineral ion that is a component of chloroplasts and stabilizer of membranes and ribosomes is
A. Iron
B. Zinc
C. Calcium
D. Magnesium
E. Potassium

D. Magnesium

9

The term autotroph refers to an organism that:
A. Uses CO2 for its carbon source
B. Must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs
C. Gets energy from sunlight
D. Gets energy by oxidizing
chemical compounds
E. Does not need a carbon source

A. Uses CO2 for its carbon source

10

The term heterotroph refers to an organism that
A. Uses CO2 for its carbon source
B. Must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs
C. Gets energy from sunlight
D. Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds
E. Does not need a carbon source

C. Gets energy from sunlight

11

Calcium is required for bacteria because
A. It stabilizes the cell wall
B. It stabilizes the ribosomes
C. It stabilizes the nucleoid
D. It maintains cellular pH
E. It makes strong bones

A. It stabilizes the cell wall

12

Growth factors
A. Are inorganic
B. Are synthesized by organism
C. Contain elemental oxygen
D. Cannot be synthesized by the organism
E. All of the choices are correct

D. Cannot be synthesized by the organism

13

An organism that uses CO2 for its carbon needs would be called a/an
A. Heterotroph
B. Photoautotroph
C. Chemoheterotroph
D. Saprobe
E. Halotroph

B. Photoautotroph

14

The term phototroph refers to an organism that
A. Uses CO2 for its carbon source
B. Must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs
C. Gets energy from sunlight
D. Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds
E. Does not need a carbon source

C. Gets energy from sunlight

15

The term chemotroph refers to an organism that
A. Uses CO2 for its carbon source
B. Must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs
C. Gets energy from sunlight
D. Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds
E. Does not need a carbon source

D. Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds

16

The methanogens, producers of methane gas, require environments that
A. Have sunlight
B. Are very acidic
C. Have abundant oxygen and CO2
D. Are extremely cold
E. Are anaerobic with hydrogen gas and CO2

E. Are anaerobic with hydrogen gas and CO2

17

Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called
A. Saprobes
B. Parasites
C. Autotrophs
D. Lithoautotrophs
E. Phototrophs

A. Saprobes

18

The type of photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen
A. Occurs in cyanobacteria
B. Does not require CO2 as a reactant
C. Occurs in purple and green sulfur bacteria
D. Does not require sunlight
E. Occurs in algae and plants

C. Occurs in purple and green sulfur bacteria

19

Archea as a group are not pathogens. This is because
A. They evolved without mammals
B. Mammals evolved special defenses against them
C. Mammalian hosts do not meet their environmental requirements
D. They are out competed by natural flora
E. None of the choices are correct

C. Mammalian hosts do not meet their environmental requirements

20

Aerobic respiration is an example of
A. Photosynthesis
B. Methanoheterophy
C. Photoheterotrophy
D. Chemoheterotrophy
E. Photo autotrophy

D. Chemoheterotrophy

21

Microorganisms that live in severe habitats, such as very hot, acidic or salty environments, are called
A. Thermophiles
B. Halophiles
C. Psychrophiles
D. Extremophiles
E. Barophiles

D. Extremophiles

22

Organisms called _____ live on or in the body of a host and cause some degree of harm.
A. Mesophiles
B. Thermophiles
C. Commensals
D. Pathogens
E. Halophiles

D. Pathogens

23

The term obligate refers to
A. The ability to exist in a wide range of conditions
B. Existing in a very narrow niche
C. Using chemicals for energy production
D. Using light for energy production
E. Using oxygen for metabolism

B. Existing in a very narrow niche

24

The term facultative refers to
A. The ability to exist in a wide range of conditions
B. Existing in a very narrow niche
C. Using chemicals for energy production
D. Using light for energy production
E. Using oxygen for metabolism

A. The ability to exist in a wide range of conditions

25

The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called
A. Facilitated diffusion
B. Diffusion
C. Active transport
D. Osmosis
E. Endocytosis

B. Diffusion

26

Diffusion of water through a semi permeable membrane is called
A. Facilitated diffusion
B. Diffusion
C. Active transport
D. Osmosis
E. Endocytosis

D. Osmosis

27

The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semi permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and cell expenditure of energy is called
A. Facilitated diffusion
B. Diffusion
C. Active transport
D. Osmosis
E. Endocytosis

C. Active transport

28

The movement of substances from higher to lower concentration across a semi permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier but no energy expenditure is called
A. Facilitated diffusion
B. Diffusion
C. Active transport
D. Osmosis
E. Endocytosis

A. Facilitated diffusion

29

The use of energy by a cell to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it is called
A. Facilitated diffusion
B. Diffusion
C. Active transport
D. Osmosis
E. Endocytosis

E. Endocytosis

30

Bacteria living in a freshwater stream that are moved to salty seawater would
A. Be in a hypotonic solution
B. Gain water
C. Be in a isotonic solution
D. Shrivel
E. None of the choices are correct

D. Shrivel

31

Which of the following microorganisms would find hypotonic conditions most detrimental?
A. Bacteria
B. Protozoa
C. Fungi
D. Algae
E. Cyanobacteria

B. Protozoa

32

Which of the following require the cell to use ATP?
A. Facilitated diffusion
B. Diffusion
C. Endocytosis
D. Osmosis
E. None of the choices are correct

C. Endocytosis

33

Contractile vacuoles are
A. Used to expel excess water from cells
B. Found in bacterial cells
C. Important to certain organisms in hypertonic environments
D. Protein carriers in cell membranes
E. Used to bring solutes into a cell

A. Used to expel excess water from cells

34

Nutrient absorption is mediated by the
A. Cell wall
B. Peptidoglycan layer
C. Proteins in the periplasmic space
D. Cell membrane
E. Nuclear membrane

D. Cell membrane

35

Halo bacteria regulate osmotic pressure by
A. Releasing salt to the environment
B. Absorbing salt from the environment
C. Excluding salt from the environment
D. Changing their cell wall to provide additional osmotic protection
E. None of the choices are correct

B. Absorbing salt from the environment

36

Facilitated diffusion is limited by
A. Substrate concentration
B. Carrier proteins in the membrane
C. Size of the pores in the membrane
D. Osmotic pressure
E. The size of the cell

B. Carrier proteins in the membrane

37

When whole cells or large molecules in solution are engulfed by a cell, this endocytosis is specifically termed
A. Pinocytosis
B. Phagocytosis
C. Facilitated transport
D. Facilitated diffusion
E. Exocytosis

B. Phagocytosis

38

Mediated transport of polar molecules and ions across the plasma membrane utilizes a _____ _____ that will bind to the substance effecting a conformational change that allows movement across the membrane.
A. Protein carrier
B. Lipid carrier
C. Porin carrier
D. All of the choices are correct

A. Protein carrier

39

In _____ conditions, the cell wall will help prevent the cell from bursting.
A. Hypertonic
B. Hypotonic
C. Isotonic
D. All of the choices are correct

B. Hypotonic

40

Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab bench top, on the shelf of a 37° C incubator and on the shelf of a 50° C incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37° C and 50° C, slight growth out on the bench top and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this species?
A. Halophile
B. Mesophile
C. Anaerobe
D. Psychrophile
E. Capnophile

D. Psychrophile

41

Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated out on the incubator shelf, in an anaerobic jar and in a candle jar. After incubation there was moderate growth of cultures in the candle and anaerobic jars, but heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf. This species is a/an
A. Aerobe
B. Anaerobe
C. Facultative anaerobe
D. Microaerophile
E. Capnophile

C. Facultative anaerobe

42

A microorganism that has an optimum growth temperature of 37° C, but can survive short exposure to high temperatures is called a/an
A. Extremophile
B. Thermophile
C. Psychrophile
D. Facultative psychrophile
E. Thermoduric

E. Thermoduric

43

An organism that grows slowly in the cold but has an optimum growth temperature of 32° C is called a/an
A. Extremophile
B. Thermophile
C. Psychrophile
D. Facultative psychrophile
E. Thermoduric

D. Facultative psychrophile

44

An organism with a temperature growth range of 45° C to 60° C would be called a/an
A. Extremophile
B. Thermophile
C. Psychrophile
D. Facultative psychrophile
E. Thermoduric

B. Thermophile

45

Human pathogens fall into the group
A. Psychrophiles
B. Thermophiles
C. Halophiles
D. Mesophiles
E. Acidophiles

D. Mesophiles

46

All of the following could find a location in or on body tissues suitable for growth except
A. Psychrophiles
B. Anaerobes
C. Facultative anaerobes
D. Mesophiles
E. Capnophiles

A. Psychrophiles

47

A microorganism that does not have catalase or super oxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with
A. Carbon dioxide
B. Oxygen
C. High salt
D. Temperatures above 37° celcius
E. High acidity

B. Oxygen

48

A microaerophile
A. Grows best in an anaerobic jar
B. Grows with or without oxygen
C. Needs normal atmospheric levels of oxygen
D. Requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels
E. None of the choices are correct

D. Requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels

49

The toxic super oxide ion is converted to harmless oxygen by two enzymes,
A. Catalase and hydrogen peroxidases
B. Super oxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxidases
C. Super oxide dismutase and catalase
D. Catalase and oxidase
E. Super oxide dismutase and oxidase

C. Super oxide dismutase and catalase

50

An organism that can use gaseous oxygen in metabolism and has the enzymes to process toxic oxygen products is a/an
A. Aerobe
B. Obligate aerobe
C. Facultative anaerobe
D. Microaerophile
E. Obligate anaerobe

A. Aerobe