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Eukarya:
Animals
Plants

Macroorganisms

1

Eukarya:
Algae
Fungi
Protozoa

Microorganisms

2

Archaea
Bacteria

Microorganisms

3

Greek word prenuleus

Prokaryote

4

Greek word true nucleus

Eukaryote

5

Morphology (shape)
Chemical composition (staining)
Nutritional requirements
Biochemical activities
Source of energy

Bacteria differentiation

6

Bacillus (rod shaped)
Coccus (spherical)
Spiral

Basic shapes

7

Spirillum
Vibrio
Spirochete

Spiral

8

Round, spherical, oval or elongated

Coccus

9

Remain attached in chain like patter

Streptococci

10

Form grape like clusters

Staphlococci

11

Rod shaped

Bacillus

12

Single
Dipolcacilli
Streptobacilli
Coccobacilli

Bacillus

13

Vibrios
Spirilla
Spirochetes

Spiral

14

Star shaped

Stella

15

Hallarcula

Square

16

Rhizobium
Corynebacterium

Plemomorphic Bactria

17

Can have more than one genetically controlled shape

Pleomorphic

18

Sugar coat outside cell wall that is viscous and sticky.
Contains polysaccharide and/or polypeptide
Capsule if organized
Slime layer if unorganized

Glycocyx

19

Important virulence factor
Protect from from phagocytosis
Allows bacteria to attach to surfaces

Capsule
Structures external to cell wall

20

Treponema pallidum

Spirochete
Cause syphilis

21

Found in gram negative bacteria
Shorter straighter, thinner than flagella
Made of protein pilin

Fibriae
Pili

22

Joins cells for transfer of DNA from one cell to another

Pili
Sex pili

23

Enable cell to adhere to surfaces
If absent no colonization of bacteria no disease
Forms biofilms

Fimbriae

24

Cell wall composed of repeating monosaccharides N-acetulglucodamine and N-acetulmuraic acid

Peptidoglycan

25

Consists of many Layers of Peptidoglycan
Contains trichroic acids
Lipoteichoic-plasma membrane
Wall teichoic acid-linked to Peptidoglycan layer

Gram positive bacteria

26

Have one or few layers of Peptidoglycan
No teichoic acid in cell wall
Peptidoglycan present in peri plasm

Gram negative Bacteria

27

Contain pigments and enzymes for bacterial photosynthesis are found in plasma membrane

Chromtophores

28

Bacterial cells will shrink ms collapse as water leaves the cell by osmosis

Hypertonic solution

29

Cell with weak wall may burst
(Gram negative

Hypotonic solution

30

Type of active transport that occurs only in prokaryotes
Substance is chemically altered during transport across the membrane. Once inside the cell plasma membrane is impermeable to it. Remains inside the cell
Uses high every guy phosphate compounds phosphoenol puruvic acid

Group translocation.

31

Highly durable dehydrated cells with thick walks additional layers formed internal to the bacterial cell membrane when nutrients are depleted

Endospores

32

Process of endospore formation within vegetative cell

Sporulation

33

Process of an endospore returning to its vegetative state triggered by breakdown in its cost and resumption of metabolism

Germination

34

DNA not enclosed in nuclear membrane

Prokaryotes

35

DNA enclosed in nuclear membrane

Eukaryotes

36

DNA associated in histones and non histones

Eukaryotes

37

Divide by binary fission
Plasma membrane has no carbohydrates and no sterols
No cytoskeleton
Ribosomes smaller

Prokaryotes

38

Divide by mitosis
Carbohydrates and sterols are present and serve as receptors
Ribosomes larger size
Sexual reproduction involves meiosis

Eukaryotes

39

Remain in groups of four

Tetrad

40

Remain in cube like groups of eight

Sarcinae

41

Gelatinous polymer of either one or both 1. Polysaccharides
2. Polypeptide
Made inside and secreted into surface

Glycocyx

42

Single polar flagellum

Monotrichous

43

Tuft of flagella on both ends

Amphitrichous

44

2 or more flagella at one pole

Lophotrichous

45

Flagella distributed over entire cell

Peritrichous

46

Filament
Hook
Basal body

Flagella

47

Long outer most region
Constant diameter
Composed of flagellum

Filament

48

Found in spirochetes also called endoflagella
Anchored at one end of spirochete
Made of bundles of fibrils beneath on outer sheath and spiral around the cell.

Axial filament

49

Lipopolysachharide outer membrane and phospholipids
Barrier to penicillin,twosomes, bile, salts, detergents
Lipid A endotoxin toxic in host blood GI tract causes fever and shock

Gram Negative Bacteria

50

O polysaccharide used for identification

Lipid A

Gram negative outer membrane

51

Target cell wall

Lysozymes

52

Fd in eukaryotic cells, tears, saliva
Cuts sugar backbone of Peptidoglycan
Gram positive wall destroyed
Gram negative wall not destroyed

Lysozymes

53

Wall less cells

Protoplast

54

Destroyed by osmotic lysis

Protoplast and spheroplast

55

Small circular double stranded DNA molecule which are extra chromosomal. Carry genes for antibiotic resistance, production for toxins, synthesis if enzymes. Can be transferred from one cell to another

Plasmids

56

Site of protein synthesis

Ribosomes

57

70s- two units w/proteins and ribosomal RNA
50s-two RNA molecule
30s-one molecule of RNA

Prokaryote ribosomes

58

Attacked by Erythromycin and chloramphenicol

50s

59

Attack by streptomycin and gentamycin

30s

60

Reserve deposits for certain infusions
Metachromatic granules-Reserve for inorganic phosphate and polysaccharide granules of glycogen and starch

Inclusions

61

Phosphate reserves

Metachromatic granules

62

Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase for CO2 fixation

Carboxysomes

63

Protein-coveted cylinders

Gas vacuoles

64

Iron oxide destroys H2O2

Magnetosomes

65

Cell projections contain cytoplasm enclosed by plasma membrane consisting of 10 pairs of microtubles (9+2)
Creates wavelike movement and has tapering
Made of protein Tubulin

Eukaryotic flagellum

66

Cellulose

Algae and plant cell wall

67

Chitin

Fungi cell wall

68

Glucan and Mannan

Yeast cell wall

69

Cell drinking

Pinocytosis

70

Cell eating

Phagocytosis

71

80s with 60s and 40s subunits
70s are present inside chloroplast and inside mitochondria
RER ribosomes synthesize proteins destined for plasma membrane for export out the cell
Free ones synthesize proteins to be used inside the cell

Eukaryotic ribosomes

72

Provide walls antigenic specificity

Teichoic acid gram positive

73

Acid fast bacteria have mycolic acid a waxy lipid outside Peptidoglycan

Mycobacteria

74

Substance move from higher conc to lower conc w/I expenditure of cellular energy

Passive process

75

Substance move from lower conc to higher con mc with use of cellular energy

Active process

76

Synthesizes phospholipids, fats, steroids
Liver-release glucose and detoxify drugs
Muscle-release calcium ions

Smooth ER

77

Proteins are modified by enzymes to form glycoproteins, lipoproteins
Packaging center

Golgi complex

78

Formed by Golgi complex
Contain 49 different kinds of powerful hydrolytic enzymes capable of breaking down various molecules and bacteria

Lysosomes

79

Formed by division of pre-existing peroxisomes
Contain enzymes to oxidize various organic substances, detoxify alcohols
Catalase hydrogen peroxide

Peroxisomes