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Bionomial nomenclature established in 1735

Carolus Linnaeus

1

Bacteria
Archae
Fungi
Protozoa
Algae
Viruses

Types of microorganisms

2

Unicellular
Prokaryotes
Peptidoglycan
Binary fission

Bacteria

3

Prokaryotes
May have cell walls
Found in extreme environments
Methanogens
Halophiles
Thermopiles

Archae

4

Eukaryotes
Have cell wall composed of Chitin
Fungi-molds-mushrooms
Reproduce sexually or asexually
Absorb organic material from environment

Fungi

5

Unicellular
Eukaryotes
Pseudopods
Asexually or sexually
Ingest organic material from environment

Protozoa

6

Unicellular or multicellular
Eukaryotes
Sexually or asexually
Cell wall composed of cellulose
Photosynthesizers
Produce molecular oxygen and carbohydrates

Algae

7

Multicellular eukaryotes
Parasitic flatworms/roundworms

Helminths

8

Acellular
Core Contains DNA OR RNA
Surrounded by protein coat
Obligate intercellular parasites

Viruses

9

All living things are composed of cells and come from pre-existing cells

Cell theory

10

Life's smallest structural units are cells
Slice of cork
First observation marked cell theory

Robert Hooke 1665

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Theory that some form of life could arise spontaneously from nonlivin matter

Spontaneous generation

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Hypothesis that living organisms arose from pre-existing life

Biogenesis

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Demonstrated that maggots do not arise from decaying meat

Francisco Redi

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Challenged spontaneous generation
Said cells arose from pre-existing cells
Biogenesis

1858
Rudolf Virchow

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Microorganisms develop spontaneously from the fluid
Used nutrient broth
In favor for spontaneous generation

John Needham 1745

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Showed that nutrient broths heated after being sealed in a flask did not develop microbial growth

Lazzaro Spallanzani 1765

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Disapproved of spontaneous generation
Microbes can be present in nonliving matter
Hear destroys microbes
Aseptic technique

Louis Pasteur 1861

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Microbes responsible fermentation
Microbial growth spoils food
Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it to vinegar

Louis Pasteur

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Conversion of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine

Fermentation

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Application of high hear for short period of time

Pasteurization

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Demonstrated physicians who did not disinfect hands transmitted puerperal or childbirth fever from one patient to another

Ignaz Semmelweis 1840

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Carbolic phenol acid kills microbes
Microbes cause surgical wound infection.

Joseph Lister 1860

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Discovered cause of Anthrax
First to prove bacteria cause disease
Sequence of experiments called Koch Postulates used to prove particular microorganisms cause particular disease
Proved germ theory of disease

Robert Koch 1876

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Protection from disease provided by vaccination

Immunity

25

Chemotheraputic agents prepared naturally by bacteria and fungi or kill other microbes

Antibiotics

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Destroy pathogens without harming host
Found first synthetic drug called Salvarsan that was an arsenic derivative provided salivation from syphillis

Paul Ehrlich

27

Accidentally got mold on culture plates of bacteria. Noticed chemical produces by mold inhibited growth of bacteria and named is penicillin which is first none antibiotic

Alexander Fleming

28

Bacterium discovered by Heide Shultz. That is visible with unaided eye. It consumes hydrogen sulfide which is toxic for animals

Thiomargaritza namibiensis

29

Study of fungi

Mycology

30

Reported disease cause by very small micron in Tabasco called modish virus
Electron microscope made virus observation possible

Dmitri Iwanowski 1892

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Study if immunity.
Vaccines and interferons are investigated to prevent and cure viral disease

Immunology

32

study of how microbes inherit traits

Microbial genetics

33

Study of how DNA directs protein synthesis

Molecular biology

34

Study of an organisms genes m. Had provided tools for classifying microorganisms

Genomics

35

DNA made from two different sources

Recombinant DNA

36

Microbes normally present on and in human body
Generally do no harm
Produce growth factors of folic acid, vitamin K and b

Normal microbiota

37

Beneficial microbes remove harmful and undesirable components
Liquids bad organic material converted by bacteria into CO2, nitrates, phosphates, sulfate a, ammonia, methane, h2s

Sewage treatment

38

Using microbes to clean up pollutants and toxic waste
Oils spills are cleaned by Pseudomonas
Bacterial enzymes are also used as detergents

Bioremediation

39

Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce protein crystals which are toxic to the digestive system of the insects

Biological insecticides

40

Microbes are used to produce foods, chemicals

Biotechnology

41

New technique used for biotechnology enables bacteria and fungi to produce a variety of proteins including vaccines and enzymes

Recombinant DNA technology

42

Inflammation of brain diagnosed in 1937 in Uganda
Mosquitoes transit disease between birds
From birds to horses
From birds to humans

West Nile Encephalitis

43

Cause Ebola virus first isolated in Congo
Causes fever, diarrhea, blood clots. Transmission through human to human contact n bodily fluids

Ebola Hemorrhagic fever

44

Discovered in Hantan River in Korea.called Sin Nombre Virus
Arrived in America from old world rats
Fever, cough progress to respiratory failure. Very contagious and fatal

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

45

Caused by HIV
Destroys CD4 lymphocytes
Infected persons die from infections by other microorganisms or cancerous cells

AIDS

46

Caused by Protozoa
Causes 30% of diarrheal illness in developing nations
Transmitted through drinking water supply, swimming pool, contaminated hospital supply

Cryptosporidium

47

Mad cow disease
Caused by PRION, infectious protein
Spread by cattle feed contaminated by sheep parts
CJD IN HUMANS

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

48

Normal inhabitant of large intestine strain 0157:H7 produces bloody diarrhea. Transmitted through undercooked meat and unpasteurized beverages

E.coli 0157:H7

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Primarily in water fowl and poultry
H5N2

Avian influenza A

50

First to observe live microorganisms
Used single lens microscope

Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek

51

Inoculated an 8 y/o volunteer with cow pox who never contracted small pix or cow pox

Edward Jenner

52

Proved silkworm disease was causes by a fungus

Agostino Bassi

53

Proposed serotyping for streptococci

Rebecca Lancefield

54

Inserted animal DNA into bacterial DNA and bacteria produced an animal protein
Recombinant DNA

Paul Berg

55

Bacteria with no cell wall
Has sterols

Mycoplasma

56

Contains pseudomurein

Archaea

57

Molds and mushrooms consist of masses of mycelia composed of filaments called hyphae

Fungi

58

Devised accepted system of classification based on cellular organization of organisms. Has 3 domains
1. Bacteria
2. Archaea
3. Eukarya

Carl Woese

59

1. Bacteria
2. Archaea
3. Eukarya
-Protist
-Fungi
- Plants
- Animals

3 domain classification