Chap1 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Chap1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap1 Deck (60)
Loading flashcards...
0

Bionomial nomenclature established in 1735

Carolus Linnaeus

1

Bacteria
Archae
Fungi
Protozoa
Algae
Viruses

Types of microorganisms

2

Unicellular
Prokaryotes
Peptidoglycan
Binary fission

Bacteria

3

Prokaryotes
May have cell walls
Found in extreme environments
Methanogens
Halophiles
Thermopiles

Archae

4

Eukaryotes
Have cell wall composed of Chitin
Fungi-molds-mushrooms
Reproduce sexually or asexually
Absorb organic material from environment

Fungi

5

Unicellular
Eukaryotes
Pseudopods
Asexually or sexually
Ingest organic material from environment

Protozoa

6

Unicellular or multicellular
Eukaryotes
Sexually or asexually
Cell wall composed of cellulose
Photosynthesizers
Produce molecular oxygen and carbohydrates

Algae

7

Multicellular eukaryotes
Parasitic flatworms/roundworms

Helminths

8

Acellular
Core Contains DNA OR RNA
Surrounded by protein coat
Obligate intercellular parasites

Viruses

9

All living things are composed of cells and come from pre-existing cells

Cell theory

10

Life's smallest structural units are cells
Slice of cork
First observation marked cell theory

Robert Hooke 1665

11

Theory that some form of life could arise spontaneously from nonlivin matter

Spontaneous generation

12

Hypothesis that living organisms arose from pre-existing life

Biogenesis

13

Demonstrated that maggots do not arise from decaying meat

Francisco Redi

14

Challenged spontaneous generation
Said cells arose from pre-existing cells
Biogenesis

1858
Rudolf Virchow

15

Microorganisms develop spontaneously from the fluid
Used nutrient broth
In favor for spontaneous generation

John Needham 1745

16

Showed that nutrient broths heated after being sealed in a flask did not develop microbial growth

Lazzaro Spallanzani 1765

17

Disapproved of spontaneous generation
Microbes can be present in nonliving matter
Hear destroys microbes
Aseptic technique

Louis Pasteur 1861

18

Microbes responsible fermentation
Microbial growth spoils food
Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it to vinegar

Louis Pasteur

19

Conversion of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine

Fermentation

20

Application of high hear for short period of time

Pasteurization

21

Demonstrated physicians who did not disinfect hands transmitted puerperal or childbirth fever from one patient to another

Ignaz Semmelweis 1840

22

Carbolic phenol acid kills microbes
Microbes cause surgical wound infection.

Joseph Lister 1860

23

Discovered cause of Anthrax
First to prove bacteria cause disease
Sequence of experiments called Koch Postulates used to prove particular microorganisms cause particular disease
Proved germ theory of disease

Robert Koch 1876

24

Protection from disease provided by vaccination

Immunity

25

Chemotheraputic agents prepared naturally by bacteria and fungi or kill other microbes

Antibiotics

26

Destroy pathogens without harming host
Found first synthetic drug called Salvarsan that was an arsenic derivative provided salivation from syphillis

Paul Ehrlich

27

Accidentally got mold on culture plates of bacteria. Noticed chemical produces by mold inhibited growth of bacteria and named is penicillin which is first none antibiotic

Alexander Fleming

28

Bacterium discovered by Heide Shultz. That is visible with unaided eye. It consumes hydrogen sulfide which is toxic for animals

Thiomargaritza namibiensis

29

Study of fungi

Mycology