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Study of disease
Structural and functional changes in body

Pathology

1

Study of the cause of disease

Etiology

2

Development of disease

Pathogensis

3

Ability of a microorganism to cause disease by overcoming the defense of the host

Pathogenicity

4

The degree or extent of pathogenicity

Virulence

5

Colonization of the body by pathogens

Infection

6

An abnormal state in which the body is not functionally normal

Disease

7

Maybe present for days, weeks or months

Transient microbiota

8

Permanently colonize the host

Normal Microbiota

9

Is the relationship between normal microbiota and the host

Symbiosis

10

Nose & throat
Eyes
Mouth
Skin
Large intestine
Urinary & reproductive systems

Locations of normal microbiota

11

Competitive exclusions
Competition between microbes

Microbial antagonism

12

Proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains

Bacteriocins

13

Are live applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect

Probiotics

14

Are used to prove the cause, etiology, of an infectious disease

Koch's postulates

15

1. Same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease
2. The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture
3. Pathogen from pure culture must cause the disease when inn ovulated into healthy animal
4. Pathogen must be isolated from inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism

Koch postulates

16

A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease.

These subjective changes are not apparent to an observer

Symptom

17

Specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease

Syndrome

18

A disease that spread from one host to another either directly or indirectly (genital heroes, TB)

Communicable disease

19

A disease that is easily spread from one host to another by direct contact or by contact with bodily fluids

Contagious disease

20

A disease that is not transmitted from one host to another

Non communicable disease

21

1. Communicable disease
2. Contagious disease
3. Noncomminicable disease

Classifying infectious disease

22

1. Incidence
2. Prevelence
3. Sporadic disease
4. Endemic disease
5. Epidemic disease
6. Pandemic disease
7. Herd immunity

Occurrence of disease

23

Fraction of population that contracts a disease during a specific time

Incidence

24

Fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time

Prevelence

25

Disease that occurs occasionally in a population

Sporadic disease

26

Disease constantly present in a population

Endemic population

27

Disease acquires by many hosts in a given area in a short time

Epidemic disease

28

Worldwide epidemic

Pandemic disease

29

Immunity in most population

Herd immunity

30

1. Acute disease
2. Chronic disease
3. Subacute disease
4. Latent disease

Severity or duration of a disease

31

Symptoms develop rapidly but last only a short time (influenza)

Acute disease

32

Disease develops slowly but body's reaction maybe less severe but the disease is likely to be continual or recurrent for long period (TB, hep B)

Chronic disease

33

Symptoms between acute and chronic

Subacute disease

34

Disease with a period of no symptoms when causative agent is inactive for a short time, but then becomes active to produce symptoms of the disease (shingles)

Latent disease

35

Pathogens limited to a small area of the body

Local infection

36

Infection in which microbes or their products are spread throughout the body (generalized infection) by blood or lymph

Systemic infection

37

Systemic infection that began as a local infection and spread to other specific body parts where they are confined to specific areas of the body(infection starting from teeth)

Focal infection

38

Bacteria in the blood

Bacteremia

39

Growth of bacteria in the blood causing systemic infection
Blood poising

Septicemia

40

Toxins in the blood
Tetanus

Toxemia

41

Viruses in the blood

Viremia

42

Acute infection that causes the initial illness

Primary infection

43

Opportunistic infection after a primary infection

Secondary infection

44

No noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection)

Subclinical infection

45

The time interval between the initial infection and the first appearance of any signs or symptoms

Incubation period

46

1. Type of microorganism
2. Virulence of that microorganism
3. Number of infecting microorganism
4. The resistance of the host

Stages of disease

47

After period of incubation, this period is characterized by early, mild symptoms of disease such as general aches and malaise

Prodromal period

48

Disease is most severe during this period. Number of white blood cells may increase or decrease. If the disease is overcome the patient dues during this period

Period of illness

49

The signs and symptoms subside during this period but the patient is vulnerable to secondary infection

Period of decline

50

The person regains strength and body returns to its predisease state, recovery has occurred

Period of convalesce

51

1. Human
2. Animal
3. Nonliving

Reservoirs of infection

52

AIDS, gonorrhea
Carries may have inapparent infections of latent disease

Human

53

Rabies, Lyme disease
Some zoonoses may be transmitted to humans

Animal

54

Botulism, tetanus
Soil
Water

Nonliving

55

Disease that primarily occur in a wild animal or domestic animal

Zoonoses

56

Number of deaths from a disease/total population in a given time

Mortality rate

57

Number of people affected/total population in a given time period

Morbidity rate

58

Deaths from modifiable diseases

Mortality

59

Incidence of a specific notifiable disease

Morbidity

60

Mapped the occurrence of cholera in London

Descriptive epidemiology

John snow

61

Showed that improved sanitation decreased the incidence of epidemic typhus

Analytical epidemiology

Nightingale

62

Showed that hand washing decreased the incidence of puerperal fever

Experimental epidemiology

Semmelweis

63

Collection and analysis of data regarding occurrence of disease

Descriptive epidemiology

64

Comparison of a diseased group and a healthy group

Analytical epidemiology

65

Study of a disease using controlled experiments

Experimental epidemiology

66

The study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted in population

Epidemiology

67

1. Contact
-direct
- indirect
- droplet
2. Vehicle transmission
3. Vectors
-mechanical (passive)
-biological (active)

Transmission of disease

68

Transmission by an inanimate reservoir (food,air,water)

Vehicle transmission

69

Arthropods, especially fleas, ticks and mosquitoes transmit disease by two methods.
1. Mechanical-arthropod carries pathogens on feet
2. Biological (active) pathogen reproduces in vector

Vectors