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Macromolecule composed of repeating unite called nucleotides

DNA

1

Nitrogenous base
Deoxyribose
Phosphate group

Nucleotide

2

Pentose sugar ribose with one less oxygen in DNA or ribose in RNS

Deoxyribose

3

The molecular study of genomes

Genomics

4

Set of rules that determine how nucleotide sequence is converted into amino acid sequence of proteins

Genetic code

5

Gene usually codes for mRNA which ultimately results in the formation of proteins
Proteins can also be a rRNA or a transfer RNA

Genetic Code

6

The entire DNA or collection of genes. It is the entire genetic material of an organism. It represents the POTENTIAL properties

Genotype

7

It refers to the actual EXPRESSED properties of an organism. It is an organisms collection of proteins

Phenotype

8

Process of DNA replication as each double stranded DNA molecule has one original mother strand and one new synthesized strand

Semiconservative

9

DNA polymerase enzyme can add new nucleotides at the 3' end of the newly synthesized strand only, so the DNA is synthesized in one direction

5'-3'

10

Lagging strand synthesis is discontinuous as it's made in fragments

Okazaki fragments

11

Enzyme opens the double helix up, so a replication fork

Helicase

12

Makes a short piece of RNA called RNA primer on the DNA TEMPLATE

RNA polymerase

13

Adds nucleotides at the 3' end of the RNA primer and make the daughter strand. It also does the proof reading mistakes in base pairing

DNA Polymerase I

14

Removes RNA Primer and replaces it with DNA nucleotides but cannot connect the two newly made segments together

DNA polymerase I

15

Joins the newly made fragments

DNA Ligase

16

Relaxes supercoiled ahead of replication fork

DNA GYRASE

17

Protein synthesis, it involves decoding the language of nucleic acids and converting information into protein language

Translation

18

AUG

Initiator codon

19

UAA
UGA
UAG

Terminator codons

20

Combines with certain proteins to make ribosomes

rRNA

21

site for protein synthesis
Copy DNA info for synthesis of proteins
Have codons in triplet bases

mRNA

22

Pick up specific amino acids in cytoplasm and transfer them to mRNA

Cloverleaf shape with attachment site for a specific amino acid
Has anti-codon complementary to codon in mRNA

tRNA

23

Codes for particular amino acid

Codon

24

Coding regions of DNA

Exons

25

Non coding regions

Introns

26

Regulatory proteins that block the binding of RNA polymerase to DNA
No transcription

Repressor protein

27

Process that turns on the transcription of a gene

Inducer

28

B-galactosides production in E.coli
Converts lactose to glucose and galactose
When lactose present it is converted to allolactose that induces the gene to produce the enzyme B-galactose

Induction

29

Area on gene where RNA polymerase binds.

Promotor