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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (51):
0

Macromolecule composed of repeating unite called nucleotides

DNA

1

Nitrogenous base
Deoxyribose
Phosphate group

Nucleotide

2

Pentose sugar ribose with one less oxygen in DNA or ribose in RNS

Deoxyribose

3

The molecular study of genomes

Genomics

4

Set of rules that determine how nucleotide sequence is converted into amino acid sequence of proteins

Genetic code

5

Gene usually codes for mRNA which ultimately results in the formation of proteins
Proteins can also be a rRNA or a transfer RNA

Genetic Code

6

The entire DNA or collection of genes. It is the entire genetic material of an organism. It represents the POTENTIAL properties

Genotype

7

It refers to the actual EXPRESSED properties of an organism. It is an organisms collection of proteins

Phenotype

8

Process of DNA replication as each double stranded DNA molecule has one original mother strand and one new synthesized strand

Semiconservative

9

DNA polymerase enzyme can add new nucleotides at the 3' end of the newly synthesized strand only, so the DNA is synthesized in one direction

5'-3'

10

Lagging strand synthesis is discontinuous as it's made in fragments

Okazaki fragments

11

Enzyme opens the double helix up, so a replication fork

Helicase

12

Makes a short piece of RNA called RNA primer on the DNA TEMPLATE

RNA polymerase

13

Adds nucleotides at the 3' end of the RNA primer and make the daughter strand. It also does the proof reading mistakes in base pairing

DNA Polymerase I

14

Removes RNA Primer and replaces it with DNA nucleotides but cannot connect the two newly made segments together

DNA polymerase I

15

Joins the newly made fragments

DNA Ligase

16

Relaxes supercoiled ahead of replication fork

DNA GYRASE

17

Protein synthesis, it involves decoding the language of nucleic acids and converting information into protein language

Translation

18

AUG

Initiator codon

19

UAA
UGA
UAG

Terminator codons

20

Combines with certain proteins to make ribosomes

rRNA

21

site for protein synthesis
Copy DNA info for synthesis of proteins
Have codons in triplet bases

mRNA

22

Pick up specific amino acids in cytoplasm and transfer them to mRNA

Cloverleaf shape with attachment site for a specific amino acid
Has anti-codon complementary to codon in mRNA

tRNA

23

Codes for particular amino acid

Codon

24

Coding regions of DNA

Exons

25

Non coding regions

Introns

26

Regulatory proteins that block the binding of RNA polymerase to DNA
No transcription

Repressor protein

27

Process that turns on the transcription of a gene

Inducer

28

B-galactosides production in E.coli
Converts lactose to glucose and galactose
When lactose present it is converted to allolactose that induces the gene to produce the enzyme B-galactose

Induction

29

Area on gene where RNA polymerase binds.

Promotor

30

Area where Repressor can bind

Operator

31

Set of promotor and operator sites and the structured gene thru control are defined as operon

Operon

32

Maybe silent or neutral
Nucleotide is substituted for other especially in third position of codon

Mutations

33

Missense mutations
Nonsense mutations

Point mutation

34

Which single base is replaced by another base

Point mutation

35

Base substitution resulting in an amino acid substitution. Suckle cell causes by this mutation

Missense mutation

36

Base substitutions resulting in a nonsense codon (stop codon) in the middle of mRNA (half product or no product)

Nonsense mutation

37

Positive selection involves detection of mutant cells by rejection of unwanted parent cells

Direct mutation

38

Negative selection selects cells that cannot preform a certain function by using replica plating

Indirect mutants

39

Genes are transferred from a donor to a recipient
Donor does not give entire chromosome
Gene transfer can occur between species

Unidirectional

40

Genes are passed from an organism to its offspring

Vertical gene transfer

41

Bacteria pass their gene to other microbes of the same generation
Transformation
Conjugation
Transduction

Gene transfer

42

Genes are transferred from one to another bacterium as naked DNA
Some bacteria release their DNA into environment. Other bacteria encounter that DNA

Transformation

43

Bacteria take up fragments of DNA and integrate then into their own chromosome by recombination
Fredrick Griffith in 1926 Strep pneumoniae

Transformation

44

Bacteria that can pick up fragments of DNA from environment Me
works best when donor and recipient cells are closely rebated
Occurs in Bacillus, Haemophillus,
neisseria, Acinetobacter, streptococcus, staph E. Coli

Transformation

45

Gene transfer from donor to a revue over by direct physical contact between cells which is mediates by plasmids

Conjugation

46

Has F factor
Sex pilus

Donor

47

Lacks F factor

Recipient

48

Give transfer from a donor to a recipient by was of a bacteriophage

Transduction

49

In which only certain donor genes can be transferred

Specialized transduction

50

Self replicating circular extra chromosomal molecules of DNA carrying genes that are not usually essential for the cells survival

Plasmids