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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Taxonomy Deck (45):
0

Science of classifying organisms with the goal of showing relationships among organisms

Taxonomy

1

Evolutionary history of a group or organism

Phylogeny

2

Shows evolutionary or phylogenetic relationships among organisms

Taxonomic hierarchy

3

Originates the 2 kingdom system of taxonomy 350 bc

Aristotle

4

Fish
Amphibians
Reptiles
Birds & mammals

Animalia

5

Grasses
Herbs
Shrubs
Trees

Plantae

6

Modernized classification & naming system

Carolus Linnaeus

7

Plant & animal kingdom

Linnaeus

8

Bacteria & Fungi put in plant kingdom

Nageli

9

Kingdom Protista proposed for bacteria, Protozoa, algae, and fungi

Haeckel

10

Introduced term Prokaryote for cell without nucleus

Chatton

11

Kingdom Fungi introduced

1959

12

Prokaryote defined as cells in which nucleoplasm is not surrounded by nuclear membrane

Stanier

13

Kingdom Prokaryote proposed

Murray

14

Proposed third kingdom called Protista, which included Protozoa, single cells algae and slime molds

Three kingdom system of Ernst Haekel

15

Animalia
Plantae
Mycetae (fungi)
Protista
Prokaryotae (monera)

5 kingdom system of Robert Whittaker

16

Difference in group Archaea
Living organisms classified into 3 domains:

Three domain system Carl Woose

17

No cell walls
Chemoautrophic

Domain Eukarya

18

Cellulose walls
Photoautotrophic

Plantae
Domain Eukarya

19

Chitin cell walls
Chemoheterotrophic

Fungi
Domain Eukarya

20

Catchall for eukaryotic organisms that do not fit other kingdoms

Protista
Domain Eukarya

21

Similarities based on ribosomal RNA living organisms are classified into three domains: bacteria, archaea, Eukarya

Three domain system

22

Placing organisms in groups of related species. It is the systematic grouping of organisms into categories of evolutionary or structural relationships between them based on similarities

Classification

23

Matching characteristics of unknown organism to list of known organism

Identification

24

Population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche

Viral species

25

Group of bacteria derived from a single cell
Pure culture

Clone

26

Nonidentical clone cells identified by numbers, letters, or names

Strain

27

Closely related strains

Bacterial species

28

Population of cells with similar characteristics

Prokaryotic species

29

Group of organisms that interbreeds and prod vie viable off spring
Organisms are grouped into taxa according to phylogenetic relationships from ancestor

Eukaryotic species

30

Determined by molecular biology techniques

Prokaryotic relationships

31

Domain----------Eukayra
Kingdom--------Animalia
Phylum----------Chordata
Class------------Mammalia
Order------------Primata
Family-----------Hominidae
Genus-----------Homo
Species---------H. Sapiens

Taxonomic hierarchy

32

Sequence bases can be used in classification of organisms

Ribosomal RNA

33

Used to detect small amounts of microbial DNA in a sample

PCR

34

Southern blotting
DNA probes

Hybridization techniques

35

Sequences amino acids
Fatty acid profiles
Percentage GC PAIRS

Method of identifying microorganisms

36

Produced by restriction enzymes are used to determine genetic similarities and can be used to identify and classify organisms

DNA fingerprints

37

Measures physical and chemicals characteristics of cells
Used to identify bacteria in a sample without cutting them

Flow cytometry

38

Is the identification of bacterial species and strains by determining their susceptibility to various bacteriophages

Phage Typing

39

Involves the reactions of microorganism with specific antibodies that are useful in determining the identity of strains and species as well as relationship among organisms

Serological test

40

Useful for identifying microorganisms especially when aided by differential staining techniques

Morphological characteristics

41

Presence of various enzymes as determined by using selective and differential media

Biochemical test

42

Single strands of DNA or of both DNA, RNA from related organisms will hydrogen bond to form double stranded molecule

Nucleic acid hybridization

43

Used for identification of organisms. Identification is based on successive questions and each question has two possible answers

Dichotomous keys

44

Show phylogenetic relationships among organisms
Using sequence bases RNA molecules the percentage of similarity in the nucleotides bases between each species

Cladograms