Chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Chapter 16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (50):
0

Lack of resistance to a disease

Susceptibility

1

Ability to ward off a disease

Resistance

2

Defenses against any pathogen (innate)

Nonspecific immunity

3

Immunity
Resistance to a specific pathogen
Adaptive

Specific resistance

4

Intact skin
Mucous membranes/secretions
Normal microbiota

First line of defense
Innate immunity

5

Phagocytes
Inflammation
Fever
Antimicrobial substances

Second line of defense
Innate immunity

6

Specialized lymphocytes: Tcells &Bcells
Antibodies

Adaptive immunity
Third line of defense

7

Epidermis consist of tightly packed cells with keratin, protective protein that makes protective barrier to resist infection

Skin

8

Kinins
Prostaglandins
Leukotrienes
Histamines

Chemicals that induce inflammation

9

Produce tears. Tears wash eyes and go to nose through lacrimal canals

Lacrimal apparatus

10

Bacteriostatic
Fungistatic
Fatty acid
Keep hairs moist

Sebum

11

Low ph
Kills microbes and toxins
Except C. Botulinum & S. Aureus

Gastric juice

12

Neutralizes acidity and grows in stomach and causes ulcers and gastritis

H. Pylori

13

Produces Bacteriocins that inhibit the growth of salmonella and shigella in large intestines

E. Coli

14

60-70%

Neutrophils

15

0.5-1%

Basophils

16

2-4%

Eosinophils

17

3-8%

Monocytes

18

20-25%

Lymphocytes

19

Peroxidases
Hydrolytic enzymes
Defensins
Bacteria slayers
Phagocytic

Neutrophil

20

Functionally similar to mast cells
Produce histamine

Basophils

21

Inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator and attracts other WBC

Histamine

22

Lead body's counter attack against parasitic worms
Lessen severity of allergies

Eosinophils

23

Phagocytic as mature macrophages
Largest leukocytes
Leave circulation enter tissue and differentiate into macrophages
Fixed macrophages in liver, brain

Monocytes

24

Involved in specific immunity
3rd line of defense

Lymphocytes

25

Inhibit adherence: M protein, capsules

S. Pyogenes
S. Pneumoniae

26

Kill phagocytes by producing leukocidins

S. Aureus

27

Lyse phagocytes: membrane attack complex

Listeria monocytogenes

28

Escape phagosomes

Shigella

29

Prevent phagosome-lysosomes fusion

HIV

30

Survive in phagolysosome

Coxiella burnetti

31

Causes Q-fever

Coxiella burnetti

32

1. Leukocytosis
2. Margination
3. Diapedesis
4. Chemotaxis

Inflammatory response

33

Neutrophils are released from bone barrow in response to leukocytosis inducing factors released by injured cells

Leukocytosis

34

Neutrophils cling to the walks of capillaries in the injured area

Margination

35

Neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls and begins phagocytosis

Diapedesis

36

Inflammatory chemicals attract neutrophils to the injury site

Chemotaxis

37

Cause vasodilation
Increase permeability of blood vessel
May role in chemotaxis
Attract neutrophils

Kinins

38

Intensify the effects of kinins
Help phagocytes move through capillaries

Prostaglandin

39

Produced by mast cells and basophils
Increased permeability of blood vessels
Help attach phagocytes to pathogens

Leukotrienes

40

Found in Mast cells, basophils, blood platelets
Release in response to injury of cells

Histamine

41

Membrane attack

C5b-C9

42

Attract and activate phagocytic cells

c5a

43

Mediate inflammation

C3a
C5a

44

Results from antigen-antigen interactions that occur during specific immune response

Classical pathway
Complement activation.

45

Occurs in response to intravascular invasion by bacteria and some fungi.
Involved interaction of complement factor b, factor D, factor P with the surface of the pathogen

Does not involve antibodies

Alternate complement pathway

46

Occurs when macrophages release chemicals that stimulate the liver to produce mannose-binding protein (lectins) which then can activate complement via alternative pathway or classical pathway

Lectin complement pathway

47

Antiviral proteins produce by infected cells

Short life span

High doses toxic to heart, liver, kidney and red marrow

Interferons

48

Inhibits viral replication

Increase NK cells

Induced MHC-1 antigens

Alpha interferon

Beta interferon

49

Activates macrophages and induces MHC-II antigens

Immunological defense against infection and cancer

Gamma interferon