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Septate hypha
Coenocyte hypha
Vegetative hypha
Reproductive or aerial hypha
Pseudohypha

Different Hyphae

1

Contain cross-walls called septa
Units are uninucleate

Septate Hypha

2

Do not contain septa
Appear continuous with many nuclei

Coenocytic hypha

3

Portion of hypha that obtains nutrients

Vegetative hypha

4

Portions of hypha concerned with reproduction
Projects above surface
Often bear reproductive spores

Reproductive or Aerial Hypha

5

Found in some buffing yeast
Short chain of buds that is unable to detach

Pseudohypha

6

Entire vegetative structure body if fungus
Consist of long filaments of cells joined together

Thallus

7

Long filament of cells in fungi
Each fragment oh hypha capable of growth

Hypha

8

Mass of long filaments of cells that branch and intertwine

Mycelium

9

Yeast. Molds and mushrooms
Aerobic And anaerobic
Reproduce by spores
Both sexual and asexual

Fungi

10

chemoautotrophic

fungi

11

Type of conida formed by the fragment of a separated hypha into single slightly thickened cells
Coccidioides immitis

Arthroconidia

12

Type of conida that consist of buds coming off the parent cell.
Some yeast like Candida albicans produce

Blastoconidia

13

Unicellular or multicellular spore that is not encoded on a sac
They are produced on a chain at the end of a Conidiospore

Conidiospore

14

Arthrospore
Blastoconidia

Conidiospore

15

Chlamydospores
Sporangiophores

Asexual spores

16

Most common method of sexual
Reproduction in fungi
Born on mycelium
Formed by the hyphae of one organism. Produce by individual fungus through mitosis n cell divisions

Asexual spores

17

Formed from aerial hyphae
Sexual or asexual
True reproductive spore
Less tolerant to dry or hot environments

Fungal spores

18

Thick walled spores formed by rounding and enlargement within a hyphal segment.
Candida albicans

Chlamydospores

19

Formed within a sporangium or sac at the end of an aerial hypha
Ex. Rhizopus

Sporangiophores

20

1. Plasmogamy
2. Karyogamy
3. Meiosis

Sexual spore reproduction

21

Haploid nucleus of a donor cell (+) penetrates the cytoplasm of a recipient cell (-)

Plasmogamy

22

Then + and - nucleus fuse to form
Zygote

Karyogamy

23

The diploid nucleus gives rise to haploid nuclei (sexual spore) some of which genetic recombinant

Meiosis

24

Fusion of haploid cell

Zygospore

25

Formed in sac (ascus)

Ascospore

26

Formed externally on pedestal (basidium)

Basidispore

27

Fungal infection

Mycosis

28

Generally chronic
Difficult to treat because of similarities of animal and fungal cells

Fungal infection

29

Deep within the body through inhalation of spore
Not contagious
Histoplasmosis
Coccidioidomycosis

Systemic mycosis

30

Breathe skin, spores or mycelial Fragment wound
By saprophytic fungi
Sporotrichosis

Subcutaneous mycosis

31

Zygomycota
Ascomycota
Basidiomycota
Anamorphs

Divisions of fungi

32

Sexual spores that are thick walked resting spores zygospores.
Asexual spores borne internally in a sporangium

Zygomata

33

Sac fungi
Septate hyphae
Sexual spores borne internally in a sac called ascus
Asexual spores are borne externally as conida

Ascomycota

34

Club fungi
Septate hyphae
Borne externally on club shaped structure called basidium

Basidiomycota

35

Deuteromycata
Imperfect fungi
Only asexual usually conidiospores have seperate hyphae

Anamorphs

36

On epidermis, hair, nails, secretes keratinase
Transmitted from human to human, animal to human contact

Cutaneous mycosis
Dermatomycosis

37

Hair shafts
Superficial epidermis

Superficial mycosis

38

Generally harmless fungi become
Pathogenic
Pneumocystis-pathogenic in AIDS pt
Stachybotrys-cause fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in infants

Opportunistic

39

Photoautotroph that lack tissues
Filamentous and few have thalli
Reproduce asexually
Fragments of thalli & filaments are capable to form new thalli and fragments

Algae

40

Thallus
Holdfast
Stipes
Blades
Pneumatocyst

Algae

41

The body

Thallus

42

Branches of thalli which anchor the seaweeds to a rock

Holdfast

43

Leaflike

Blades

44

Gas filled bladder found in some algae that acts as a float

Pneumatocyst

45

Brown algae

Phaeophtyta

46

Red algae

Rhodophyta

47

Green algae

Chlorophyta

48

Diatoms

Bacillariophyta

49

Dinoflagellates

Dinoflagellata

50

Diatoms
Unicellular, Filamentous with cell wall of pectin & layer of silica
Domoic acid intoxication

Bacillariophyta

51

Causes diarrhea and memory loss
Causes by eating mussels feeding on diatoms

Domoic acid intoxication

52

Unicellular algae called plankton

Dinoflagellata

53

Caused by saxitoxin produced by genus Alexandrium that forms red tide in ocean. Humans contracts that disease when they eat mollusks feeding on these dinoflagellates

Paralytic shellfish poisoning

54

Caused by Gambierdiscus toxicus by eating large fish

Ciguatera

55

Chemoautotroph
Unicellular

Protozoa

56

Archaeozoa
Microsporidia
Amoebozoa

Divisions of Protozoa

57

Unusual eukaryotes
Without mitochondria usually two or more front end flagella

Archaeozoa

58

Unusual eukaryotes without mitochondria or microtubles
Pathogen-Nosema

Microsporidia

59

Called amoebas
Move by blunt projections called pseudopods
Pathogens-entamoeba, Acanthoeba

Amoebozoa

60

Non motile, intracellular parasites
Plasmodium(complex life cycle)

Apicomplexa

61

Ciliary motion
Pathogen
Balantidium coli

Coli photos

62

Flagella
Pathogen
Trypanosoma

Euglenozoa

63

Multicellular eukaryotic parasitic animals
Chemohetertroph
Lack digestive system, nutrients are absorbed
Complex reproduction system to produce large number of eggs

Helminths-parasitic worm

64

Animalia
2 Phyla:
Platyhelminthes(flatworms)
-flukes
- tapeworms
Nematoda (roundworms)

Helminths

65

Complex life cycle as each larval stage needs a specific host
Do cross fertilization, or self fertilization
Dioecious-male & female
Monoecious
Hermaphroditic-one animal has both types of reproductive organs

Helminths

66

Flukes
Liver fluke
Blood fluke
Lung fluke

Trematodes

67

Flukes
Leaf shaped bodies
Ventral sucker & oral sucker
Have cuticle
Hermaphrodites

Trematodes

68

Clonorchis sinenis
Found mainly in the common bile duct and hall bladder

Liver fluke

69

Schistosoma
Penetrates the skin of ppl bathing in stagnant water pools. Adult parasite invades the liver and produces disease
Swollen abdomen and presence of microscopic eggs in feces

Blood fluke

70

Paragonimus westermani

Lung fluke

71

Tapeworms
Intestinal parasites
Scolex has suckers for attachment
Completely lack digestive system
Body consists called proglottids

Cestodes

72

Pork tapeworm
Humans definitive host, seine intermediate host
Proglottids leave the human body in fences and contaminates fed to pigs
Eggs by human hatch and larvae encyst in brain and other parts causing cysticercosis

Taenia solium

73

Roundworms
1. Has infective eggs
2. Infecting Larva

Nematodes

74

Complete digestive system, mouth, intestine and anus
Dioecious w/sexual dimorphism
Free living or parasites of plants and animals

Nematodes

75

Parasitic roundworms
Pinworm

Enterobius

76

Parasitic roundworm
Invades intestinal wall and produce larva that invades muscles

Trichinella

77

Insects transmits disease from one host to another
Tse tse fly transmits African Trypanosomiasis
Rat flea transmits bubonic plague

Insect vectors