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1

Anatomy

Study of structure of body parts and relationships to one another

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Physiology

-How it works
-How it functions

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Levels of Structural Organization

-Chemical Level (Atoms)
-Cellular Level (Organelles)
-Tissue Level
-Organ Level
-Organ System Level
-Organismal Level

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Anatomical Position

-Stand straight up
-Arms at side
-Palms facing forward
-Head and feet facing forward

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11 Systems

-Integumentary
-Skeletal
-Muscular
-Nervous
-Endocrine
-Circulatory
-Lymphatic
-Respiratory
-Digestive
-Urinary
-Reproductive

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Superior

Cranial

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Inferior

Caudal (Towards the feet)

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Anterior

-"Ventral"
-Front of Body

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Posterior

-"Dorsal"
-Back of Body

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Medial

Closer to mid-line of body

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Lateral

Farther from mid-line of body

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Proximal

Closer to body trunk

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Distal

Farther from body trunk

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Superficial

At surface

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Deep

In Dermis

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Sagittal Plane

Splits body into left and right

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Transverse Plane

Splits body into top and bottom

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Coronal Plane

Splits body into front and back

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Midsagittal

Lies on mid-line

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Parasagittal

Not on mid-line

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Dorsal Body Cavity

-Cranial Cavity
-Vertebral Cavity

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Cranial Cavity

Contains:
-Brain

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Vertebral Cavity

Contains:
-Spinal cord

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Ventral Body Cavity

-Thoracic Cavity
-Abdominal Cavity
-Pelvic Cavity

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Thoracic Cavity

Contains:
-Heart
-Lungs

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Abdominal Cavity

Contains:
-Digestive viscera

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Pelvic Cavity

Contains:
-Bladder
-Reproductive Organs
-Rectum

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Orbital Cavity

Contains:
-Eyes

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Nasal Cavity

Contains:
-Nose

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Oral Cavity

Contains:
-Mouth

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Middle Ear Cavity

Contains:
-Ear

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Synovial Cavity

Joint between neck and vertebrae
*Fibrous capsule around joint*

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Right Upper Quadrant

Contains:
-Liver
-Gall Bladder
-Kidneys
-Pancreas

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Left Upper Quadrant

Contains:
-Stomach
-Spleen
-Kidneys

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Right Lower Quadrant

Contains:
-Bladder
-Intestines

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Left Lower Quadrant

Contains:
-Intestines

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8 Necessary Life Functions

1. Maintaining boundaries between external/internal environments
2. Movement
3. Responsiveness
4. Digestion
5. Metabolism
6. Excretion
7. Reproduction
8. Growth

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1. Maintaining boundaries between internal/external environments (homeostasis)

Examples:
-Skin
-Cell Membrane

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2. Movement (contractility)

-Skeletal muscle contraction
-Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)

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3. Responsiveness

-Ability to sense and respond to stimuli
-Withdrawal reflex
-Reflex control of breathing

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4. Digestion

-Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs
-Absorption of simple molecules into blood

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5. Metabolism

-All chemical reactions that occur in body cells (Anabolism, Catabolism)

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Catabolism

Break down of larger molecules into smaller molecules

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Anabolism

Use of energy to construct larger molecules from smaller ones

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6. Excretion

-Removal of wastes form metabolism
-Urea, carbon dioxide, feces

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7. Reproduction

-Production of offspring
-Cellular division for growth or repair

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8. Growth

-Increase in size of a body part or of an organism

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Feedback Control Loops

-Receptor (sensor)
-Control center
-Effector

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Receptor (sensor)

-Monitors environment
-Responds to stimuli

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Control Center

-Receives input from receptor
-Interprets signal, and determines appropriate response

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Effector

-Receives output from control center
-Provides the means to respond
-Response either: positive or negative