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Flashcards in CNS Deck (43):
1

Contra lateral hemisphere

Contra lateral means each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body

2

How does contralateralization work

Decussation of pyramids

3

What is the left hemisphere used for

-language
-math
-logic

4

What is the right side of the hemisphere used for

-visual/spatial skills
-emotion
-art
-music

5

What does the primary motor cortex do

Conscious control of the skeletal muscle movements

6

Pre motor cortex

Plans movements
Controls voluntary movements which depend on sensory feedback

7

Broca's area

Usually in left hemisphere
Directs muscles involved in speech production

8

Primary sensory area

Receives sensory info from skin and proprioceptors in muscle
Interneurons only

9

Wernickes area

-language comprehension
-ability to speak coherently

10

Prefrontal cortex

-intellect
-personality
-planning voluntary activity weighing consequences of future actions

11

Where are memories stored

-visual memories- occipital cortex
-musical memories-auditory cortex

12

Stages of memory formation

-short term (seconds, minutes)
-long term (min, hours, days, years)
-increases number of axons and dendrites
-increases size of axon terminal
-no change in neuron number

13

How to convert short term to long term

-repetition
-association
-stored in hippocampus

14

Association fibers

Connect different parts of the same hemisphere

15

Commisural fibers

Connect hemispheres to each other

16

Projection fibers

Connect cerebral cortex to Lower brain or spinal cord

17

Where are basal nuclei found and what do they do

Found deep in cerebellum
Influences motor movements from cerebral cortex

18

Diseases based off of basal nuclei

-Parkinson's (reduction of basal nuclei NT)
-Huntingtons (destruction of basal nuclei)

19

What makes up the diencephalon

-thalamus
-epithalamus
-hypothalamus

20

What does thalamus do

-receives all sensory info (except smell)
-decides what is worthy of being passed on to cerebral cortex

21

What does hypothalamus do

-controls heart rate, blood pressure, GI motility
-temp regulation
-regulates food intake
-emotions

22

What does epithalamus do

Secretes melatonin from pineal gland

23

What makes up the brain stem

-midbrain
-pons
-medulla oblongota

24

What does the superior and inferior colliculi do?

-superior:visual motor reflex
-inferior:auditory motor reflex

25

What does the pons do

-maintains normal rhythm of breathing

26

What does the medulla oblongota do?

-regulates heart contraction
-regulates blood pressure
-controls rate of breathin

27

What does the cerebellum do

-subconscious coordination of movement
-receives input from motor cortex, basal nuclei, proprioceptors, primary visual cortex, vestibular apparatus

28

What is found in the dorsal root

Sensory neurons coming I

29

What is found in the ganglion

Cell bodies

30

What is found in the ventral root

-motor neurons out

31

What is found in the spinal nerves

-sensory and motor neurons

32

What is found in the dorsal horn

Interneurons
Synapse with sensory neurons in dorsal root

33

What is found in the lateral horn

Cell bodies of ANS

34

What is found in the ventral horn

Interneurons and cell bodies of somatic motor nerves

35

Sulci

Grooves in brain that increases SA and number of potential neural connections

36

Ascending tracts

Transmit sensory impulses up to higher centers

37

Descending tracts

-transmit motor impulses down to lower levels

38

What do the pyramidal tracts control and where do they originate

-they control conscious/voluntary skeletal muscle contraction
-originate in cerebral motor cortex

39

What do extrapyramidal tracts control?

-originate in basal nuclei and brain stem
-control subconscious/involuntary skeletal muscle contraction

40

What do the spinothalamic tracts do and where do they originate

-detect temperature, pain and touch receptors
-synapse in thalamus

41

What do spinocerebellar tracts do and where do they originate

-subconscious muscle or tendon stretch
-originate in proprioceptors
-synapse in cerebellum

42

What can go through blood brain barrier

-Glucose
-O2
-CO2
-lipids
-drugs
-anesthetics

43

What can't go through blood brain barrier

-metabolic waste
-blood cells
-K+
-certain toxins
-most drugs