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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (52):
1

Compound

-2 or more elements joined together

2

Organic Compounds

-Contain carbon

3

Water (H2O)

-Makes up 60%-80% of cell volume
-Inorganic
-Polar molecule

4

Water as a solvent

-Allows the body to transport nutrients

5

Properties of Water

-High heat capacity
-High heat of vaporization

6

Electrolytes

-Conduct electrical current
-Dissociate in water into positively and negatively charged ions

7

Uses of Electrolytes

-Propagation of nerve impulses
-Contraction of muscle
-Maintaining voltages across cell membranes

8

Monosaccharides

Simple sugars

9

Functions of Carbon

-Source of cellular fuel
-Structural molecules
-Attached to outside of cell membranes

10

Cellular Respiration

-Converts sugars and O2 into CO2, H2O and ATP

11

Carbon Structural Molecules

-Ribose sugar in RNA
-Deoxyribose sugar in DNA

12

Carbon attached to outside of cell mem.

-Cell interaction molecules
-Cell recognition structures

13

Lipids

-Triglycerides
-Phospholipids
-Steroids

14

Saturated Fatty Acids

-Single covalent bonds between Carbon atoms
-Ex: Butter

15

Unsaturated Fatty Acids

-One or more double bonds between Carbon atoms
-Ex: Olive oil

16

Triglycerides

-Non-polar
-Hydrophobic
-Mostly subcutaneous and around organs
-Insulates and protects organs
-Main source of energy storage for body

17

Phospholipids

-Contain Phosphorus
-Found in plasma membranes

18

Steroids

-Structure: 3-6 C rings attached to 1-5 carbon ring
-Cholesterol

19

Cholesterol

-Component of cell membranes
-Precursor for steroid hormones
-Precursor for bile salts
-Precursor for Vitamin D

20

Steroid hormones

-Progesterone
-Testosterone

21

Bile salts

-Important in the breakdown of fats

22

Vitamin D

-Important in calcium absorption and bone health

23

Proteins

-Structural-form structures in cells, tissues and organs
-Functional (Enzymes)-Bring molecules together or split them apart in chemical reactions

24

Amino Acids

-20 different amino acids
-8 Essential-cannot be produced in body, must be taken in during diet
-12 non essential-can be produced in the body

25

How many amino acids make a protein?

-2 amino acids make a peptide
-3+ amino acids make a polypeptide
-50+ amino acids make a protein
-Most proteins are 100-10,000 amino acids

26

Protein structure

Proteins are arranged in secondary, then tertiary, then quaternary structures

27

Fibrous Proteins

-Collagen
-Elastin
-Keratin
-Actin and Myosin

28

Fibrous Protein Properties

-Structural
-Linear
-Insoluble in water
-Stable

29

Collagen

-Can withstand tension
-Found in:
-Connective tissue
-Skin

30

Elastin

Found in:
-Skin
-Around Arteries
-Organs that need to stretch
-Ligaments

31

Keratin

Found in:
-Hair
-Nails
-Skin

32

Actin and Myosin

-Contract to produce tension
Found in:
-Inside muscle cells

33

Globular Proteins

-Antibodies
-Hormones
-Enzymes
-Hemoglobin

34

Globular Protein Properties

-Spherical
-Soluble in water
-Chemically active

35

Antibodies

-Proteins produced by immune cells which recognize foreign antigens

36

Hormones

-Biologically active molecules secreted by endocrine glands

37

Enzymes

-Proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells
-Usually end in -ase
-Lowers activation energy

38

Activation Energy

-Energy required to start a chemical reaction

39

Hydrolysis

-Hydro-water
-Lysis-Cut
-A chemical reaction in which water is added to break a larger compound into smaller subunits

40

Dehydration Synthesis

-A chemical reaction during which water is removed
-Two smaller molecules join to form a larger molecule

41

Nucleic Acids

-DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
-RNA (Ribonucleic acid)
-Large nucleotide polymers

42

DNA vs RNA

DNA
-Contains our genetic material
-Provides all the info used to make proteins
RNA
-Copies genetic info from DNA and uses it to make proteins
-Actually does the work

43

Nucleotides

-Phosphate group
-Pentose Sugar
Ribose (RNA)
Deoxyribose (DNA)
-Nitrogenous Base
A, C, G, T and U(RNA)

44

DNA

-2 polynucleotide chains twisted to form double helix
-Bases bind specifically to each other
A to T
C to G
-Sugar is Deoxyribose

45

RNA

-Usually single stranded
-Sugar is Ribose
-No Thymine, Uracil is used

46

Types of RNA

-mRNA (Messenger RNA)
-tRNA (Transfer RNA)
-rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)

47

Messenger RNA

-Complimentary copy of DNA that serves as the code for making a protein.
-Formed during the process of transcription

48

Transfer RNA

-Transfer specific amino acid to polypeptide chain
-Amino acid corresponds to a specific anti codon, complementary to mRNA

49

Ribosomal RNA

-Componenet of the ribsome
-Helps facilitate interactions between mRNA and tRNA

50

ATP

-Primary energy transferring molecule in cells
-Provides energy that is immediately usable by cells in the body

51

Function of ATP

-Phosphorylation

52

Phosphorylation

-Terminal phosphates are transferrer to and energize other molecules