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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (67):
1

Who Discovered Cells?

-Robert Hooke in 1665 -Observed cork slices -Coined the term "cells"

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Schleiden and Schwann Cell Theory

Schleiden- concluded that all plant parts are made of cells Schwann- stated that all animal tissues are composed of cells

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Cell Theory

-All life forms are made of one or more cells -Cells only arise from pre-existing cells -The cell is the smalled form of life

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Cell Types

-Cells that connect body parts, form linings or transport gases -Cells that move organs and body parts -Cells that store nutrients -Cells that fight disease -Cells that gather info and controls body functions -Cells of reproduction

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Cells that connect body parts, form linings, or transport linings

-Fibroblasts -Erythrocytes -Epithelial cells

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Cells that move organs and body parts

-Skeletal muscle cell -Smooth muscle cells

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Cell that stores nutrients

-Fat cell

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Cell that fights disease

-Macrophage

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Cell that gathers info and controls body function

-Nerve cell

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Cell of reproduction

-Sperm

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Plasma Membrane functions

-Boundary-separates intracellular fluid from extracellular fluid -Regulates transport of molecules into and out of the cell -Recognition molecules that identify a cell to other cells

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Membrane Lipids

-75% phospholipids Lipid bilayer -5% glycolipids Lipids with polar sugar groups on outer membrane surface -20% cholesterol Increases membrane stability

13

Membrane Proteins

-Integral Proteins -Peripheral Proteins -Filament of Cytoskeleton

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Integral Proteins

-Firmly inserted into the membrane -Often transmembrane -Usually transport proteins -Often contains pores -Can mediate attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix

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Peripheral Proteins

-Loosely attached to integral proteins -Usually enzymes

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Filament of Cytoskeleton

-Cytosolic -Supports membrane -Gives cells their shape

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Glycocalyx

-Carbohydrate coat of cell surface Glycolipids Glycoproteins -Important in cell recognition Immune cells MHC proteins ABO blood groups

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Plasma Membrane Special Features

-Microvilli -Gap Junctions -Tight Junctions

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Microvilli

-Finger like projections of the cell membrane -Increase surface area of cell -Aid in absorption -Found in small intestine, kidney

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Gap Junctions

-Transmembrane proteins that form pores that allow small molecules to pass from cell to cell -Found in cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle cells

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Tight Junctions

-Prevent molecules from passing through layers of cells -Found in the intestines

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How do molecules pass through cell membranes?

-Passive transport -Active transport

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Passive Transport

-Does not require energy (ATP) -Molecules move down a concentration gradient

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Active Transport

-Requires ATP -Molecules move against a concentration gradient

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Simple Diffusion

-Molescules diffuse directly through phospholipid bilayer -Molecules must be small, non-polar, and lipid soluble (O2, CO2, Ureae, Alcohol) -Requires concentration gradient

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Facilitated Diffusion Channel Mediated

-Molecules diffuse directly through channels down concentration down concentration gradient -Usually small polar charged molecules (Na+, K+)

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Facilitated Diffusion Carrier Mediated

-Carriers have high specificity (Glucose, amino acids) -Carriers can become saturated (Tm) -Tm= transport max -Maximum level of saturation for a carrier protein

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Osmosis

-Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane -Uses aquaporins -Travels down a concentration gradient

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Isotonic solutions

-Usuallu 0.9% NaCl -5% Glucose

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Hypotonic solutions

-Less than 0.9% NaCl -Less than 5% Glucose

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Hypertonic solutions

-Greater than 0.9% NaCl -Greater than 5% Glucose

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Osmotic Pressure

-Pressure that develops as a result of osmosis

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Filtration

-Moving down a pressure gradient

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Hydrostatic Pressure

-Pressure exerted by water against the plasma membrane

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Plasma Membrane Potential

-Voltage resulting from separation of oppositely charged particles Regulated by -Na+K+ pump -Leaky K+ channels -Membrane Potential is usually -70 to -90 mV

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Endocytosis

-Uptake of large particles or numerous particles into cells through vesicles -Form of Active Transport

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Phagocytosis

-"Cell-Eating" -Engulfment of bacteria or other particles by psuedopod extension -Particle enclosed in phagosome (later combines with lysosome) -Macrophages

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Pintocytosis

-"Cell-Drinking" -Engulfment of extracellular fluid and dissolved molecules (nutrients) -Intestinal cells

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Exocytosis

-Moving particles out Ex: -Hormones -Neurotransmitters -Mucus

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Cytoplasm

-Area between plasma membrane and nuclear membrane -Cytosol -Organelles -Inclusions

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Cytosol

-Viscous jelly like substance suspending all cytoplasmic components -Mostly water

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Organelles

-Little organs

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Inclusions

-Cell specific -Glycogen (liver and muscle) -Lipid droplets (Adipose) -Melanin (Skin)

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Mitochondria

-"Power house" of cell -Aerobic Respiration -Have their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes

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Aerobic Respiration

-Process of conversion of glucose to ATP -Requires Oxygen

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Ribosomes

-Sites of protein synthesis Two types -Free ribosomes -Membrane-bound (ER) ribosomes

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Free ribosomes

-Synthesize cytosolic proteins

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Membrane bound (ER) ribosomes

-Synthesize plasma membrane proteins, or proteins that are exported -Antibodies, hormones, neurotransmitters

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

-Network of interconnected membranes, continuous with nuclear membrane

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Rough ER

-Ribosomes attached -Ribosomes synthesize membrane proteins or proteins that are exported

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Smooth ER

-No ribosomes, so no role in protein synthesis -Contains enzymes which play a role in lipid synthesis, steroid hormone synthesis -Detoxify drugs -Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) (in muscle) regulate calcium needed for muscle contraction

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Golgi Apparatus

-Modifies, sorts and packages proteins made in the ER Example: -Carbohydrate or phosphate attachment

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Lysosomes

-Spherical organelles containing digestive enzymes (hydrolases) -Macrophage lysosomes digest particles (bacteria) taken in by endocytosis -Digest non-functional organelles -Digest non-functional tissue (webbing in feet-hands in fetal development)

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Peroxisomes

-Spherical organelles containing enzymes -Enzymes detoxify harmful substances (alcohol, fermeldahyde) -Neutralizes free radicals such as superoxide (O2-) a byproduct of cellular respiration

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Cytoskeleton

-The cell's skeleton Made of: -Microfilaments -Intermediate filaments -Microtubules

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Microfilaments

-Cell shape -Cell contraction -Reinforce the plasma membrane -Cytokinesis

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Intermediate filaments

-Help cells resist tension (stretching)

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Microtubules (MTs)

-Position and suspend organelles

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Centrioles

-Centrioles are paired hollow tubes that anchor and organize MTs -Centrioles generate the mitotic spindle -Direct cilia and flagella formation

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Nucleus

-Control center of the cell -Most cells have one nucleus Exceptions: -Skeletal muscle (multinucleate) -Red blood cells (anucleate)

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Nuclear Envelope

-Double membrane -Continuous with ER

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Nucleolus

-Make ribosomes

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Chromatin

Contains: -DNA -Histone Proteins

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Chromosome Architecture

-DNA is wound around histone proteins -During mitosis chromatin organizes into chromosomes

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DNA Transcription

-DNA info encoded in mRNA

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DNA Translation

-mRNA decoded to assemble polypeptides (proteins)

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Q image thumb

DNA transcription