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Flashcards in Tissues Deck (68):
1

What are tissues?

-A group of cells working together

2

What are the 4 types of tissues?

-Epithelial tissue
-Muscle tissue
-Nervous tissue
-Cardiac tissue

3

Epithelial tissue

-Covers and lines surfaces

4

Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue

-Highly cellular
-Polar (apical/basal surface)
-Basement membrane
-Avascular
-Regenerative
-Specialized contacts

5

What is simple squamous epithelium?

-a single layer of flat cells
-Filtration and diffusion

6

Where is simple squamous epithelium located?

-Alveolar air sacs of lungs
-Kidney glomerulus

7

Two special types of simple squamous epithelium

-Endothelium
-Mesothelium

8

Endothelium

-Lines circulatory system (blood vessels and heart) and lymphatic vessels

9

Mesothelium

-Lines serous membranes

10

Simple cuboidal epithelium

-Secretion and absorption

11

Simple cuboidal epithelium locations

-Kidney tubules
-Glands

12

Simple columnar epithelium

-Secretion and absorption

13

Location of simple columnar epithelium

-Digestive tract (stomach, intestines)
-Glands
-Uterine tubes

14

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

-Single layer of cells, nuclei at various heights
-Secretion

15

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium location

-Trachea
-Glands
-Sperm carrying ducts

16

Stratified squamous epithelium

-Protection
-Found in areas exposed to a lot of friction
-Upper layer replaced by rapidly dividing cells in basal layer

17

Stratified squamous epithelium location

-Skin
-Mouth
-Esophagus
-Vagina

18

Stratified Cuboidal epithelium

-Rare
-Found in some sweat and mammary glands
-Typically two cell layers thick

19

Stratified columnar epithelium

-Rare
-Some parts of pharynx, male urethra and lining some glandular ducts
-Only apical layer columnar

20

Transitional epithelium location

-Bladder
-Ureters
-Urethra

21

Glands

-One or more cells that secrete a product (proteins, hormones, steroids)

22

Endocrine glands

-Ductless
-Secrete products into extracellular space by exocytosis
-Products are hormones

23

Examples of endocrine glands

-Pituitary gland
-Thyroid gland
-Adrenal gland

24

Exocrine glands

-Have ducts
-Secrete products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities

25

Examples of exocrine secretions

-Mucus, sweat, oil, saliva, bile, digestive enzymes (pancreas)

26

Unicellular exocrine glands

-Single cell
-Ductless
-Ex: goblet cell

27

Where are unicellular exocrine glands found

-Intestines
-Trachea

28

Merocrine glands

-Most common
-Contents released by exocytosis

29

Examples of merocrine glands

-Sweat glands
-Goblet cells

30

Holocrine glands

-Contents released by rupturing
-Cells are killed in the secretion process

31

Examples of holocrine glands

-Oil gland

32

Functions of connective cells

-Connects tissues
-Supports other tissues
-Energy storage
-Transport

33

Characteristics of Connective Tissue

-Degrees of vascularity
Lots of extracellular matrix

34

Degrees of vascularity

-Avascular- Cartilage
-Highly vascular-adipose

35

Lots of extracellular matrix

-True for cartilage, bone, tendons, ligaments, areolar tissue, blood, reticular
-Not true for adipose tissue

36

Extracellular matrix

-Collagen
-Elastin
-Reticular fibers
-Ground substance

37

Collagen

-Tough thick fibers
-Able to withstand tension

38

Elastin

-Thin fibers, stretch and recoil

39

Reticular fibers

-Very fine collagen fibers
-Form a branched network to support tissue

40

Ground substance

-Interstitial fluid, proteoglycans, proteins and polysaccharides

41

Proteoglycans

-Giant protein/carbohydrate complexes
-Very negatively charged-attracts water and ions into extracellular space

42

Functions of proteoglycans

-Keep tissues hydrated
-Help lubricate fibers
-Helps withstand compression

43

Cell types

-Fibroblast
-Chondroblast
-Osteoblast
-Hematopoetic stem cell (hematocytoblast)

44

Fibroblast

-Makes collagen fibers

45

Chondroblast

-Makes cartilage

46

Osteoblast

-Makes bone

47

Hematopoetic stem cell

-Makes blood cells, not ECM

48

Blood borne cells

-White blood cells
-Macrophages
-Mast cells

49

White blood cells

-Help with tissue response to injury or infection

50

Macrophages

-Eat foreign particles by phagocytosis

51

Mast cells

-Release substances (histamine) from granules

52

Histamine

-Makes capillaries leaky

53

Areolar connective tissue components

ECM
-Loosely packed fibers (all kinds)
-Lots of ground substance
Cells
-Fibroblasts
-Blood borne cells

54

Areolar connective tissue characteristics

-Vascular
-Found under layers of epithelium

55

Areolar connective tissue functions

-Wraps and cushions tissues
-Defense against infection

56

Adipose connective tissue characteristics

-Sparse ECM
-Highly cellular
-Highly vascular

57

Adipose connective tissue locations

-Subcutaneous
-Around organs
-Behind eyeballs
-Breast
-Abdomen

58

Adipose connective tissue functions

-Shock absorber
-Insulator
-Energy storage

59

Reticular connective tissue components

-Only reticular ECM fibers
-Many white blood cells

60

Reticular connective tissue location

-Spleen
-Lymph nodes
-Bone marrow

61

Reticular connective tissue function

-Provides a supportive framework for blood cells

62

Dense regular connective tissue characteristics

-Mostly parallel collagen fiber bundles (resists tension)
-Fibroblasts
-Avascular

63

Dense regular connective tissue locations

-Tendons
-Ligaments
-Aponeuroses

64

Tendons

-muscle to bone

65

Ligaments

-bone to bone

66

Aponeuroses

-muscle to muscle

67

Function of dense regular connective tissue

-connects bones and muscles
-resists tension

68

Dense irregular connective tissue components

-Irregularly arranged collagen fiber bundles (can withstand tension)
-Fibroblasts