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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (47):
1

Functions of Skeletal System

-Support
-Protection
-Movement
-Storage
-Hematopoiesis

2

Support of Skeletal System

-Provides a framework for the body

3

Protection from Skeletal System

-Protects internal organs

4

Movement of Skeletal System

-Skeletal muscles attach to bones to move body parts

5

Storage of Skeletal System

Stores:
-Calcium (98%)
-Fat (Triglycerides)

6

Hematopoiesis

-Production of blood cells (RBCs and WBCs) by hematopoietic stem cells (hematocytoblasts)

7

Characterization of bone shape

-Long bone (Humerus)
-Short bone (Triquetral)
-Flat bone (Sternum)
-Irregular bone (Vertebra)

8

Composition of Bone Matrix

-67% hydroxyapatites
Calcium Phosphate
Calcium Carbonate
-33% Collagen

9

Hydroxyapatites

-Mineral Salts
-Inorganic
-Resist Compression

10

Collagen

-Organic
-Resist tension

11

Osteogenesis Imprefecta

-Caused by mutation in gene for Type I collagen

12

What cells make up bone?

-Osteogenic cells --->
-Osteoblast --->
-Osteoclast --->
-Osteocytes

13

Osteogenic Cell

-Mitotically active
-Stem cells

14

Osteoblast

-Bone forming cells
-Secrete bone matrix
-Collagen and Osteoid

15

Osteoid

-Immature bone matrix
-Glue that will hold calcium crystals and collagen fibers

16

Osteoclast

-Giant multinucleate cells derived from stem cells in bone marrow
-Degrade bone matrix
-Ruffled border
-Increases surface area for degrading bone matrix

17

How do osteoclasts degrade bone matrix?

-HCl degrades hydroxyapatites
-Lysosomal enzymes degrade collagen

18

Osteocytes

-Reside in lacuna
-Monitor their environment
-Maintain bone matrix by regulating osteoblasts and osteoclasts

19

Structure of bone

-Spongy bone
-Compact bone
-Articular cartilage

20

Trabeculae

-Network of supporting "beams" present in spongy bone

21

Long Bone Anatomy

-Diaphysis
-Epiphysis
-Periosteum
-Endosteum

22

Diaphysis

-Shaft
-Compact bone-dense
-Medullary cavity
Yellow marrow-adipose
Red Marrow-hematopoiesis

23

Epiphysis

-Ends of bone
-Compact bone-outer layer
-Spongy bone-porous
-Epiphyseal line
-Articular cartilage

24

Epiphyseal line

-Former growth plate

25

Articular Cartilage

-Cartilage at ends of bones
-Made of hyaline
-No nerves
-Smooth
-Enables bones to glide

26

Periosteum

-Fibrous tissue coating outer surface of bones

27

Outer Layer Composition of Periosteum

-Dense Irregular tissue
-Surface for muscle attachment
-Vascular

28

Inner Layer Composition of Periosteum

-Contains osteogenic cells

29

Sharpey's fibers

-Collagen fibers
-Attach periosteum to bone

30

Endosteum

-Lines medullary cavity
-Contains Osteogenic cells

31

Types of Bone Marrow

-Yellow Bone Marrow
-Red Bone Marrow

32

Yellow Bone Marrow

-Fat Storage

33

Red Bone Marrow

-Site of production for blood cells
-Contains hematopoietic stem cells
-These cells have the potential to differentiate into:
WBCs
RBCs
Platelets

34

Hematopoiesis

-The process by which hematopoietic stem cells self-renew and differentiate to form RBCs, WBCs, and platelets

35

Where is hematopoietic tissue located in newborns?

-Medullary cavity of long bones and all areas of spongy bone that contains red marrow

36

Where is hematopoeitic tissue located in adults?

-Most red marrow is replaced with yellow marrow except in:
head of femur
head of humerus
Diploe of flat bones (Sternum, coxal bones)

37

Osteons

-Unit of compact bone
-Contains:
Central Canal
Lamella
Lacuna

38

Central Canal of Osteons

-Blood Vessels
-Nerve fibers

39

Lamella of Osteons

-Rings around central canal

40

Lacuna

-Where the osteocytes sit

41

How is bone made?

-Intramembranous Ossification
-Endochondrial Ossification

42

Intramembranous Ossification

-Differentiation of bone from mesenchymal stem cells found in fibrous connective tissue
-Process by which cranial bones and clavicles are formed
-Begins at 8 weeks of development-fibrous connective tissue starts to ossify

43

Endochondrial Ossification

-Process by which cartilage is turned into bone

44

Intramembranous ossification step 1

-Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts
-Osteoblasts start laying down matrix (collagen, osteoid) to form ossification centers

45

Intramembranous Ossification step 2

-Osteoids calcify forming the bone matrix
-Trapped osteoblasts turn into osteocytes

46

Intramembranous Ossification step 3

-Trabeculae and periosteum form
-Osteoid is laid down between embryonic blood vessels forming trabeculae
-Vasculized mesenchyme condenses and becomes the periosteum

47

Intramembranous Ossification step 4

-Trabeculae deep to periosteum are replaced by compact bone-forming compact bone plates
-Spongey bone (diploe) persists inside