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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (105):
1

Epithelial Tissue

-Covers and lines surfaces

2

Epithelial Tissue Characteristics

-Highly cellular
-Polar
Has an apical and basal surface
-Basement membrane
-Avascular
No blood vessels
-Regenerative
-Specialized contacts

3

Simple Squamous Epithelium

-Single layer of flat cells
-Areas of high filtration and diffusion

4

Simple Squamous location

-Alveolar air sacs of lungs
-Kidney Glomerulus

5

Special types of simple squamous epithelial

-Endothelium
-Mesothelium

6

Endothelium

-Lines entire circulatory system (blood vessels and heart)
-Lymphatic vessels

7

Mesothelium

-Lines serous membranes

8

Simple cuboidal epithelium

-Secretion and absorption

9

Simple cuboidal epithelium location

-Kidney tubules
-Glands

10

Simple columnar epithelium

-Secretion and absorption

11

Simple columnar epithelium location

-Digestive tract
-Stomach
-Intestines
-Glands
-Uterine tubes

12

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

-Single layer of cells, nuclei at various heights
-Secretion

13

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium location

-Trachea
-Glands
-Sperm carrying ducts

14

Stratified squamous epithelium

-Protection
-Found in areas exposed to a lot of friction
-Upper layer replaced by rapidly dividing cells in basal layer

15

Stratified squamous epithelium locations

-Skin
-Mouth
-Esophagus
-Vagina

16

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

-Rare
-Found in some sweat and mammary glands
-Typically two cell layers thick

17

Stratified columnar epithelium

-Rare
-Some parts of Pharynx
-Male urethra
-Lining some glandular ducts
-Only apical layer columnar

18

Transitional Epithelium

-Bladder
-Ureters
-Urethra

19

Glandular epithelia

-Glands
-Secretions
-Endocrine/Exocrine

20

Glands

-One or more cells that secrete a product

21

Secretions

-Water based fluids containing proteins (hormones) and lipids (steroids)

22

Endocrine glands

-Ductless
-Secrete products into extracellular space by exocytosis
Examples:
-Pituitary Gland
-Thyroid Gland
-Adrenal Gland

23

Exocrine glands

-Have ducts
-Secrete products onto body surfaces or into body cavities
-Mucus, sweat, oil, saliva, bile (liver), digestive enzymes (pancreas)

24

Unicellular Exocrine glands

-Single cell
-Ductless
Found in:
-Intestines
-Trachea

25

Secretion methods

-Merocrine glands
-Holocrine glands

26

Merocrine glands

-Most common form of secretion
-Cells release contents by exocytosis
Ex:
-Sweat glands
-Goblet cells

27

Holocrine glands

-Cells release secretions by rupturing
-Cells are killed during secretion process
Ex:
-Sebacious (oil) gland

28

Connective Tissue Functions

-Connects tissues
-Supports other tissues
-Energy storage
-Transport

29

Connective tissue characteristics

-Degrees of vascularity
-Lots of extracellular matrix

30

Connective tissues vascularity

-Cartilage: Avascular
-Adipose: Highly vascular

31

Connective tissue extracellular matrix

-A lot of extracellular matrix is true for cartilage, bone, tendons, ligaments, areolar tissue, blood, reticular
-Exception: Adipose tissue, not much EM

32

Extracellular Matrix

-Collagen
-Elastin
-Reticular Fibers
-Ground substance

33

Collagen

-Tough thick fibers
-Can withstand tension

34

Elastin

-Thin fibers
-Stretch and recoil

35

Reticular Fibers

-Very fine collagen fibers
-Form a branched network to support tissue

36

Ground Substance

-Interstitial fluid
-Proteoglycans
-Proteins
-Polysaccharides

37

Proteoglycan

-Very negatively charged
Attracts water and ions into extracellular space
-Keeps tissues hydrated
-Helps lubricate fibers
-Helps withstand compression

38

Connective tissue cell types

-"-blast" cells make ECM and ground substance
-Fibroblast
-Chondroblast
-Osteoblast
-Hemotopoetic stem cell (hematocytoblast

39

Fibroblast

-Makes collagen fibers

40

Chondroblast

-Makes cartilage

41

Osteoblast

-Makes bone

42

Hematopoetic stem cell (hematocytoblast)

-Makes blood cells, not ECM

43

Blood Borne Cells

-White blood cells
-Macrophages
-Mast cells
-Histamine

44

White Blood Cells

-Help with tissue response to injury or infection

45

Macrophages

-"Eat" foreign particles (bacteria, tissue debris) by phagocytosis

46

Mast Cells

-Release substances from granules

47

Histamine

-Makes capillaries leaky

48

Areolar Connective Tissue

-Loose connective
-Loosely packed ECM fibers (all kinds)
-Lots of ground substance
-Blood borne cells

49

Areolar Connective Tissue Location and Function

-Found under layers of epithelium
-Wraps and cushions tissues
-Vascular
-Defense against infection

50

Adipose Connective Tissue

-Loose connective
-Highly cellular
-Sparse ECM
-Highly vascular

51

Adipose Connective Tissue Location

-Subcutaneous
-Around organs
-Behind eyeballs
-Breast
-Abdomen

52

Adipose Connective Tissue Function

-Shock absorber
-Insulator
-Energy storage

53

Reticular Connective Tissue

-Loose connective tissue
-Only reticular ECM fibers
-Many white blood cells

54

Reticular Connective Tissue Locations

-Spleen
-Lymph nodes
-Bone marrow

55

Reticular Connective Tissue Functions

-Provides a supportive framework for blood cells

56

Dense Regular Connective Tissue

-Dense connective tissue
-Mostly parallel collagen fiber bundles
Resists tension (pulling)
-Fibroblasts
-Avascular

57

Dense Regular Connective Tissue Locations

-Tendons
Muscle to bone
-Ligaments
Bone to bone
-Aponeuroses
Muscle to muscle

58

Dense Regular Connective Tissue Functions

-Connects bones and muscles
-Resists tension (stretching)

59

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

-Dense connective tissue
-Irregularly arranged collagen fiber bundles
-Can withstand tension in multiple directions
-Fibroblasts

60

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Location

-Dermis of skin
-Periosteum
Fibrous coverings of bones

61

Elastic Connective Tissue

-Many elastic fibers
Allows tissue to recoil after stretching

62

Elastic Connective Tissue Location

-Artery Walls
-Vocal Cords

63

Cartilage

-Flexible yet tough
-Must withstand tension and compression
-Avascular
-No nervous system innervation

64

Hyaline Cartilage Locations

-Most abundant type of cartilage
-Embryonic skeleton
-Articular cartilage (ends of bones)
-Costal cartilage
-Nose
-Trachea and Brachial tubes

65

Hyaline Cartilage

-Dense collagen extracellular matrix
-Chondrocytes
Make matrix

66

Elastic Cartilage

-ECM contains more elastic fibers
-Chondrocytes
Make matrix

67

Elastice Cartilage Locations

-More flexible than hyaline
-Ear
-Epiglottis

68

Fibrocartilage

-Fibrous collagen ECM
-Chondrocytes
-Able to withstand heavy pressure

69

Fibrocartilage Locations

-Intervertebral discs
-Meniscus (Knee)
-Pubic symphysis

70

Osseous Tissue

-Hard ECM made of collagen and calcium salts
-Osteoblasts make matrix
-Vascular and nervous innervation

71

Blood

-Most fluid ECM
Plasma
Proteins
-Red blood cells
-White blood cells

72

Blood function

-Transport

73

Epithelial Membranes

-Epithelium bound to connective tissue

74

Cutaneous Membrane

-Dry membranes exposed to air
-Stratified squamous+dense irregular

75

Mucus Membranes

-Line cavities open to the exterior environment
-Moist
-Respiratory system, GI tract, Urinary system, eyes

76

Serous Membranes

-Line cavities closed to the exterior environment
-Ventral body cavity
-Dorsal body cavity
-Mesothelium + Areolar tissue

77

Mesothelium

-A special simple squamous epithelium
-Secretes serous fluid

78

What are the Serous Membranes?

-Parietal Membrane
-Visceral Membrane

79

Parietal Membrane

-Lines the entire cavity
-Secrete fluid

80

Visceral Membrane

-Inner membrane
-Wraps around organ

81

Special Serous Membranes

-Pleural Membrane
-Pericardium
-Peritoneal Membrane

82

Pleural Membrane

-Lines the pleural cavity (encasing lungs)

83

Pericardium

-Lines the pericardial cavity (encasing the heart)

84

Peritoneal Membrane

-Encases the abdominal cavity

85

Characteristics of Muscles

-Highly cellular
-Vascular
-Elongated cells (fibers)
-Contracts

86

Skeletal Muscle

-Attached to bones
-Pull on bones to cause body movements
-Voluntary
Except diaphragm

87

Skeletal Muscle cells

-Long cylindrical cells
-Multinucleated
-Striated (striped) appearance

88

Cardiac Muscle

-Heart muscle
-Propels blood through blood vessels to provide oxygen and nutrients to organs
-Involuntary

89

Cardiac muscle cell

-Striations
-Branched arrangement of myocytes
-Uninuclate
-Intercalated discs

90

Intercalated discs

-Special junctions between cardiac myocytes that contain gap junctions

91

Smooth muscle

-Found in hollow organs
GI tract, blood vessels, uterus
-Propels substances through by contracting
-Involuntary

92

Smooth muscle cells

-No striations
-Cigar shaped myocytes

93

Nervous Tissue

-Main component of brain, spinal cord, and nerves
-Transmit electrical impulses

94

Nervous Tissue Cells

-Neurons
-Neuroglia

95

Neurons

-Generate and conduct nerve impulses
-No mitosis

96

Neuroglia

-Supporting cells insulate and protect neurons
-Mitosis

97

How do tissues repair themselves?

-Regeneration
-Fibrosis

98

Regeneration

-Destroyed tissue is replaced by the same kind of tissue
-Occurs in epidermis

99

Fibrosis

-Destroyed tissue is replaced by fibrous connective tissue
-Scars
-Occurs in dermis

100

Step 2 of tissue repair

-Clot is replaced by granulation tissues which contains
Capillaries
Macrophages
Fibroblasts

101

Step 1 of tissue repair

-Blood vessels are injured
-Local blood vessels become leaky
Allow WBC and clotting proteins to enter site of injury
-A clot is formed

102

Highly Regenerative Tissues

-Epithelial tissue
-Bone

103

Poorly Regenerative Tissues

-Skeletal muscle
fibroblasts create scar tissue
satellite cells give rise to new muscle
-Cartilage

104

No Regenerative Capacity Tissues

-Cardiac Muscle
-Nervous System

105

What are adhesions?

-Bands of scar tissue that form between organs causing them to stick together
-Usually occur following abdominal surgery