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Flashcards in Exam 3 Study Guide Deck (83):
1

List the functions of the skeletal system.

Support
Protection
Movement
Storage
Hematopoiesis

2

Support

Provide a framework for the body.

3

Protection

Protects internal organs.

4

Movement

Skeletal muscles attach to bones to move body parts.

5

Storage

Calcium(98%), Fat (Triglycerides)

6

Hematopoiesis

production of blood cells (RBCs and WBCs) by hematopoietic stem cells (hematocytoblasts)

7

How are bones classified

Long bones (Humerus)
Short bones (Carpal bones)
Flat bones (Sternum)
Irregular bones (Vertebra)

8

What is bone matrix comprised of?

67% Hydroxyapaties
-Calcium Phosphate
-Calcium Carbonate
33% Collagen

9

Name the 4 bone cells

Osteogenic
Osteoblast
Osteoclast
Osteocytes

10

Osteogenic cells

Mitotically active
Stem cells

11

Osteoblast

Bone forming cells
Secrete bone matrix
Collagen and Osteoid

12

Osteoclast

Giant multinucleate cell derived from stem cells in bone matrix
Degrade bone matrix
Ruffled border
Increase surface area for degrading bone matrix

13

Osteocytes

Reside in lacuna
Monitor their environment
Maintain bone matrix by regulating osteoblasts and osteoclasts

14

Compact Bone

Outer parts of bone, strengthens it

15

Spongy Bone

Inner parts of bones
Allows for nerve and vessels to run through the bone

16

Diaphysis

Shaft

17

Epiphysis

Ends of bone

18

Epiphyseal line

Former growth plate

19

Articular Cartilage

Cartilage at ends of bone
-Made of hyaline
-No nerves
-Enables bones to glide

20

Yellow Bone Marrow

Fat Storage

21

Red Bone Marrow

Production of red blood cells
Contains hematopoietic stem cells

22

Stem cells can differentiate into...

WBC
RBC
Platelets

23

Parts of Osteon

Central Canal
Lamella
Lacuna

24

Central Canal

Blood vessels
Nerve fibers

25

Lamella

Rings around central canal

26

Lacuna

Where the osteocytes sit

27

Steps of intramembranous ossification

Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts
Osteoids calcify- forming the bone matrix
Trabeculae and periosteum form
Trabeculae deep to periostium are replaced by compact bone- forming compact bone plates

28

Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts

Osteoblasts start laying down matrix (collagen, osteoid) form ossification centers

29

Osteoids calcify- forming the bone matrix

Trapped osteoblasts turn into osteocytes

30

Trabeculae and periosteum form

Osteoid is laid down between embryonic blood vessels forming trabeculae
Vascularized mesenchyme condenses and becomes the periosteum

31

Trabeculae deep to periosteum are replaced by compact bone-forming compact bone plates

Spongy bone (diploe) persists inside

32

List the steps of endochondral ossification

Bone collar forms around the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage model
Cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and then develops cavities
The periosteal bud invades internal cavities and spongy bone forms
The diaphysis elongates and a medullary cavity forms. Secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphysis
The epiphysis ossify. When completed, hyaline cartilage remains only in the epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages

33

Events in longitudinal bone growth

Resting (quiescent) zone
Growth (proliferation) zone
Hypertrophic zone
Calcification zone
Ossification

34

Resting (quiescent) zone

Resting chondrocytes

35

Growth (proliferation) zone

Chondrocytes undergo mitosis

36

Hypertrophic zone

Chondrocytes undergo hypertrophy (Get bigger)
Secrete extracellular matrix

37

Calcification zone

Matrix becomes calcified
Chondrocytes die

38

Ossification

Osteoblasts and osteoclasts invade from medullary cavity
Osteoblasts deposit osteoid on cartilage fragments forming spongy bone

39

Bone Closure in males vs. females

Males: 21 years
Females: 18 years

40

What is appositional bone growth?

Widening of bones
Outer bone diameter widens
Medullary cavity also widens bone doesn’t get heavier

41

Name and describe the effects of hormones (before and after puberty) on bone development.

Childhood
-Growth hormone,LiverIGF-1,Thyroid Hormone
-Stimulates growth at epiphyseal plate
Puberty
-Sex hormones

42

15. Describe bone remodeling and when it occurs.

Spongy bone replaced every 3-4 years
Compact bone replaces ever 10 years

43

PTH

Produced in response to low blood calcium levels
Stimulates osteoclasts to breakdown bone and release calcium into blood
Increases renal absorption of calcium from urine

44

Calcitonin (Thyroid)

Produced in response to high blood calcium levels
Stimulates osteoblast activity and inhibits osteoclast activity to move calcium from blood into bones

45

Calcitrol

Hormone stimulating absorption of calcium in small intestine

46

What is Wolff’s Law?

Bone grows or remodels in response to the mechanical stresses placed on it

47

Give some examples of Wolff’s law in action.

Bone spurs from walking
Added bone matrix from vigorous exercise

48

Normal Bone Repair

Hematoma forms
Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
Bony callus forms
Bone remodeling occurs

49

What are some ways in which technology can be used to encourage bone growth?

Electric stimulation
Bone Grafts

50

Bone Grafts

Autograft (Self)
Allograft (cadaver)
Artificial (biodegradable ceramic)

51

What are the ways in which joints can be characterized in terms of their function?

Synarthroses-immovable joints
Amphiarthroses-slightly movable joints
Diarthroses-freely movable joints

52

Describe a fibrous joint.

Joints joined by dense fibrous connective tissue; no joint cavity; no fluid; mostly synarthrotic

53

3 examples of fibrous joints

Suture
Syndesmoses
Gomphoses

54

Suture

“seam” of fibrous connective tissue between bone
-Between skull bones, allow skull to expand as brain grows

55

Syndesmoses

Syndesmoses-bones connected by ligaments
-Tibia/fibula
-Ulna/Radius

56

Gomphoses

peg in socket fibrous joint
-Periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket

57

Describe a cartilaginous joint.

Articulating bones united by cartilage; no joint cavity; most are synarthroses

58

Describe 2 types of cartilaginous joint.

Syndochondroses-bones united by hyaline cartilage
-Joint between first rib and sternum
Symphyses-bones united by fibrocartilage
-Pubic Symphysis

59

Synovial Joint

Articulating bones separated by fluid filled joint cavity
Diarthrotic
Most limb joints

60

Parts of Synovial

Articular Cartilage
Articular Capsule
Synovial Fluid
Reinforcing ligaments

61

Articular Cartilage

Hyaline cartilage covering opposing bone surfaces
Absorb compressive forces
Allows bones to glide over one another

62

Articular Capsule

Double layered capsule enclosing the joint cavity
-Fibrous Layer (Outer layer)
a.Continuous with periosteum
b.Dense irregular cartilage
-Synovial Membrane (inner layer)
a.Makes synovial fluid
Specialized blood filtrate
Contains Hyaluronic acid

63

Synovial Fluid

Lubricates joints
Reduces friction between cartilages
Provides nourishment to cartilage
Contains hyaluronic acid

64

Reinforcing ligaments

Capsular-thickened parts of the fibrous layer
Extracapsular-found outside the fibrous layer
Intracapsular-found deep to the fibrous layer

65

Angular Movements

Flexion
Extension
Hyperextension

66

Rotational Movements

Lateral Rotation
Medial Rotation

67

Planar Movement

Flexion of foot
Extension of foot

68

Abduction

Moving away from body

69

Adduction

Moving towards the body

70

Circumduction

Rotating arm

71

Lateral rotation

Rotation away from midline

72

Medial rotation

Rotation towards midline

73

Supination

Rotating palm inferior to superior

74

Pronation

Rotating palm superior to inferior

75

Elevation

lifting body part superiorly

76

Depression

Moving body part inferior

77

Protraction

moving body part anteriorly

78

Retraction

Moving body part posteriorly

79

Opposition

thumb touching fingers

80

Elbow

Hinge joint
Uniaxial movement
-Flexion
-Extension

81

Shoulder

Ball and socket joint
Multiaxial movement
Very easily dislocated

82

Hip

Ball and socket joint

83

d. Knee

The terrible three
-Tibial collateral ligament (TCL)
-Medial meniscus
-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)