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Flashcards in Exam 1 study guide Deck (57):
1

What are the levels of structural organization in the body?

-Chemical Level
-Cellular Level
-Tissue Level
-Organ Level
-Organ System Level
-Organismal Level

2

Dorsal Cavity

-Cranial cavity
-Vertebral cavity

3

Ventral Cavity

-Thoracic Cavity
-Abdominopelvic cavity

4

What is Anatomical position?

-Standing straight up
-Arms at side
-Palms facing forward
-Head and feet facing forward

5

What are the 3 planes of dissection?

-Transverse
-Sagittal
-Coronal (frontal)

6

Transverse Plane

-Cuts body into top and bottom

7

Sagittal Plane

-Cuts body into left and right

8

Coronal Plane

-Cuts body into front and back

9

5 pairs of directional terms

-Dorsal (posterior) vs ventral (anterior)
-Medial vs lateral
-Proximal vs. distal
-Superior vs inferior
-Superficial vs deep

10

8 necessary life functions

-Homeostasis
-Movement
-Responsiveness
-Digestion
-Metabolism
-Excretion
-Reproduction
-Growth

11

What is the relationship between homeostasis and negative feedback loops?

-They both work to keep balance in the body

12

5 major groups of organic biomolecules

-Carbohydrates
-Lipids
-Proteins
-Amino Acids
-Nucleic Acids

13

What makes water such an important biomolecule?

-Must abundant compound in the body
-High heat capacity
-High heat of vaporization

14

What are electrolytes and why are they important?

-Conduct electrical current
-Dissociate in water into positively and negatively charged ions

15

Fibrous Proteins

-Structural, linear, insoluble in water, stable
Ex: Collagen, Elastin, Keratin, Actin, Myosin

16

Globular Protein

-Spherical, soluble in water, chemically active
Ex: antibodies, hormones, enzymes

17

What does it mean if a protein is denatured?

-When a protein loses its shape
-Peptide bonds are intact
-Hydrogen bonds are disrupted
-Caused by heat, rise in pH

18

What are enzymes? How do they work?

-Globular proteins that increase the speed of chemical reactions
-Usually end in -ase
-Lower the activation energy
-Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions

19

Difference between DNA and RNA?

-DNA contains genetic material
-DNA provides all of the info used to make proteins
-RNA copies genetic info from DNA and uses it to make proteins

20

Hydrolysis

-A chemical reaction in which water is added to break a larger compound into smaller subunits
-Silicon dioxide is an example

21

Dehydration Synthesis

-A chemical reaction which water is removed
-Two smaller molecules join to form a larger molecule
-Maltose is an example

22

Plasma Membrane biomolecules

-Lipids
-Proteins

23

Simple diffusion vs osmosis vs facilitated diffusion

-Simple diffusion allows molecules to diffuse directly through the phospholipid bilayer
-Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
-Facilitated diffusion molecules diffuse through channels down concentration gradient

24

Difference between passive and active transport

-Active: Requires ATP, molecules move against concentration gradient
-Passive: Does not require ATP, molecules move down a concentration gradient

25

Isotonic solutions

-Usually 0.9% NaCl or 5% glucose.
-Cells strive in this solution

26

Hypotonic solutions

-Less concentrated

27

Hypertonic solutions

-More concentrated >0.9% NaCl or >5% glucose
-Cells shrivel up in this solution

28

Endocytosis

-Uptake of large particles or numerous particles into cells through vesicles
-Form of active transport
Ex: Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis

29

Exocytosis

-Moving particles out
Ex of Molecules exocytosed: hormones, neurotransmitters, mucus

30

Organelles found in a cell

-Mitochondria
-Cytoplasm
-Ribosomes
-Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Golgi Apparatus
-Lysosomes
-Peroxisomes
-Cytoskeleton
-Nucleus

31

Mitochondria

-Power house of cell
-Helps with aerobic respiration

32

Cytoplasm

-Area between plasma membrane and nuclear membrane

33

Ribosomes

-Sites of Protein synthesis

34

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

-Ribosomes attached
-Ribosomes synthesize membrane proteins or proteins that are exported

35

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

-No ribosomes
-Contains enzymes involved in lipid synthesis, steroid hormone synthesis
-Detoxify drugs

36

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

-In muscles
-Regulates calcium needed for muscle contraction

37

Golgi Apparatus

-Modifies, sorts and packages proteins made in the ER

38

Lysosomes

-Digest bacteria taken in by endocytosis
-Digest non functional organelles
-Digest non functional tissue

39

Peroxisomes

-Enzymes detoxify harmful substances

40

Cytoskeleton

-The cells skeleton

41

Nucleus

-Control center of the cell

42

Examples of cells having more than one or less than one nucleus

-Skeletal muscle (multinucleate)
-Red blood cells (anucleate)

43

Transcription

-DNA information encoded in mRNA

44

Translation

-mRNA decoded to assemble polypeptides (proteins)

45

Microfilaments

-Help with:
Cell shape
Cell contraction
Reinforce the plasma membrane
Cytokinesis

46

Intermediate Filaments

-Help cells resist tension

47

Microtubules

-Position and suspend organelles

48

Why are electrolytes important?

-Propagation of nerve impulses
-Contraction of muscle
-Maintain voltages across cell membranes

49

Examples of Active Transport

-H2O moving through a semi permeable membrane to the salt concentrated side

50

Carbohydrate functions

-Major source of cellular fuel
-Helps DNA and RNA structurally

51

Lipid functions

-Insulates and protects organs
-Energy storage

52

Protein functions

-Enzymes, speed up chemical reactions

53

Amino acid functions

-Transport and store nutrients
-Give cells their structure

54

Nucleic acid functions

-Translation and transcription of genetic information

55

Carbohydrate Structure

-Carbon ring with 1 oxygen inside the ring

56

Lipid structure

-Line of Carbon chain with a double bonded Oxygen on one end

57

Amino acid structure

-Carboxyl group, amino group, hydrogen and R Group