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Flashcards in final Deck (50):
1

Chemical gated channel

Neurotransmitters bind to receptor which opens channel and allows Na+ in.

2

Voltage gated channel

channels open and close in response to changes in the membrane potential

3

depolarization

membrane potential moved toward 0 mV, inside becomes less negative/more positive. On chart it slightly increases. Na+ flowing into cell. Increases the probability of producing nerve impulses

4

hyperpolarization

membrane potential increases, inside becomes more negative. On chart, it slightly decreases. Decreases the probability of producing nerve impulses. K+ leaving the cell

5

repolarization

Occurs when K+ flows out of the cell

6

action potential order

Resting state Depolarization Repolarization Hyperpolarization

7

Resting state

no ions move through voltage gated channels

8

absolute refractory period

The period from opening of the Na+ channels until the Na+ channel begin to reset to their original resting state

9

relative refractory period

: Interval where most Na+ channels have returned to their resting state, some K+ channels are open and repolarization occurs

10

saltatory conduction

When action potentials are only triggered at the gaps

11

synapse

a junction that mediates information transfer from one neuron to the next or from a neuron to an effector cell

12

Neurotransmitters

Chemical messenger released by neurons that may stimulate or inhibit those neurons or effector cells. Must bind to receptors of neurons or effector cells

13

EPSPs

-Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential
-local graded depolarization event

14

IPSPs

-Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials
-Hyperpolarizing changes in action potential

15

temporal summation

2 excitatory stimuli close in time cause EPSPs that add together

16

spatial summation

2 simultaneous stimuli at different locations cause EPSPs that add together

17

cerebral cortex lateralization

Each hemisphere of the brain having a specific ability that it doesn’t share with the other hemisphere

18

cerebral cortex dominance

left side is dominant for language and right side is musical and artistic

19

cerebral white matter

Consists mostly of myelinated fibers bundled into large tracts. Provides for communication between cerebral areas and lower CNS centers

20

basal nuclei

Specific gray matter areas located deep within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres

21

thalamus

A mass of gray matter in the diencephalon. This is the relay station for information coming into the cerebral cortex. Information is sorted out and “edited.” Impulses from all senses and all parts of the body converge on the thalamus

22

hypothalamus

Main visceral control center of the body, vitally important to overall body homeostasis. Controls ANS, initiates physical responses to emotions, regulates body temp, regulates food intake, regulates water balance and thirst, regulates sleep-wake cycles, controls endocrine system function

23

epithalamus

Secretes melatonin, regulates sleep-wake cycle

24

midbrain

located between diencephalon and pons

25

pons

Bulging brain stem region between midbrain and medulla oblongata. Composed of motor and sensory conduction tracts.

26

medulla oblongota

Form 4th ventricle with pons. Also composed of fiber tracts

27

anterior root

motor root

28

posterior root

sensory root

29

ascending columns

-tracts bringing info to the higher centers
-Dorsal white column, posterior spinocerebellar tract and anterior/lateral spinothalamic tract

30

descending columns

Tracts bringing info to the cord from the brain or within the cord to lower levels
Tectospinal tract, vestibulospinal tract, medial reticulospinal tract

31

monosynaptic reflexes

a single synapse between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron

32

polysynaptic reflex

multiple synapses with chains of interneurons

33

stretch reflex

Makes sure that the muscle stays at that length (patellar or knee jerk reflex)

34

flexor reflex

Causes automatic withdrawal of the threatened body part of the stimulus. Happens when you hurt yourself

35

crossed extensor reflex

This is accompanied by the flexor reflex in weight bearing limbs. Like when you step on glass bare foot

36

contralateral

opposite

37

ipsilateral

situated on the same side

38

CSF Flow

-lateral ventricle
-interventricular foramen
-third ventricle
-cerebral aqueduct
-fourth ventricle
-central canal
-arachnoid villus

39

ANS

: consists of visceral motor nerve fibers that regulate activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands (involuntary nervous system)

40

SNS

Composed of somatic motor nerve fibers that conduct impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles (voluntary nervous system)

41

preganglionic neurons

reside in brain or spinal cord

42

postganglionic neurons

reside in an autonomic ganglion outside the CNS

43

Neurotransmitter sympathetic

norepinehrine (NE)

44

Fight or flight

sympathetic

45

effects of sympathetic on body

Help us when we are in an emergency or threatening situation. Heart rate increases, deep breathing, dry mouth

46

rest and digest

parasympathetic

47

neurotransmitter for parasympathetic

ACh

48

effects in body of parasympathetic

conserves and stores energy
maintenance function

49

antagonistic action

seen on the activity of the heart, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal system. Example: heart rate increases during fight or flight, then decreases after emergency

50

cooperative action

example: PS dilates blood vessels and produces erection of male penis then the S causes ejaculation of semen