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1

Anthropology

The study of all aspects of the human experience
Four types: Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology, and Linguistic Anthropology

2

Primates

The mammalian order to which humans belong

3

Archaeology

The study of the patterns of behavior and the material record of humans who lived in the past

4

Biological Anthropology

The study of the biological and biocultural facets of humans and their relatives

5

Cultural Anthropology

The study of the human culture; the patterns of behavior we exhibit in our families, relationships, religions, laws, moral codes, etc.

6

Ethnography

The focused study of a culture or aspects of a culture

7

Ethnology

The comparative study of many cultures

8

Linguistic Anthropology

The study of language, its structure, function, and evolution

9

Paleoanthropology

The study of fossil humans and human relatives

10

Fossil

Material evidence of past life on this planet

11

Ecology

Interrelationships between living organisms and their environments

12

Theory

A set of supported hypotheses

13

Paradigm

Predominant ways of thinking about ideas

14

The Fact of Evolution (observable, verifiable truth)

That life on this planet has changed over time

15

The Theory of Evolution

A set of hypotheses that explain how the change occurs

16

Great Chain of Being

An important idea of Greek and Roman Philosophy.
The notion that all forms of life on the planet can be ranked in order from the most important to the least important
-Supports the belief that higher ranked forms are better than lower ranked forms and that humans are superior to other life forms

17

Essentialism

Each organism has a true, ideal form and that all living representatives of that organism are slight deviations from the ideal type
-Answers are self-evident

18

John Ray

An English naturalist, classified plants and animals on the basis of similarities and differences

19

Robert Hooke

Believed that fossils represented extinct organisms and proposed that extinctions occurred because of changes in the earth

20

Nicolas Steno

Founded stratigraphy, the study of the rock and soil layers of the earth
-Proposed that the strata of the earth represented a chronological history of a constantly changing planet

21

Catastrophism

-The belief that great castrophes regularly wipe out much of life on earth
-Believed humans were all descendants of survivors of the Great Flood

22

Stratigraphy

The study of the layering of the earth's sediments

23

taxanomy

Naming and classification of organisms based on morphological similarities and differences

24

Carolus Linnaeus

A swedish naturalist and Father of Taxonomy
-Invented a two name system to identify and group different forms (binomial nomenclature)
-Believed in fixity of nature: No new species could arise from other
-Binomial nomenclature destroyed notions of great chain of being

25

George-Louis Leclerc, Comte du Buffon

-Proposed that variation was the result of the dynamic interaction between organisms and their environment
-Still believed in Great Chain of Being
-Believed Earth was much older than 6000 years (160,000)

26

Erasmus Darwin

Process of Speciation: Gradual change of one species into another--had produced the diversity of forms we see on the planet

27

Lamarck

-Adaptation is the result of environmental challenges
Process of evolution: Will to change, the inheritance of acquired characteristics, law of use and disuse
-An organism can "will" itself to change over the course of its lifetime and pass those acquired traits off to offspring
-Largely Incorrect

28

Adaptation

Change in response to environmental challenges

29

Alfred Russel Wallace & Charles Darwin

-Variation present in populations means some individuals have traits that allow them to survive longer and produce more offspring
"Fit" traits are passed on to future generations (survival of the fittest)
-Organisms adapt to environments over time (Descent by modification/Natural Selection)

30

Reproductive Success

A measure of the number of surviving off-spring an organism has