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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (26)
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1

Phenotype

Observable, measurable characteristics of an organism

2

Animalia

A class of living things that includes all organisms that are heterotrophs (they eat ofther organisms to obtain energy)

3

Mammalia

An order of animals characterized by traits that include, among others, effective internal temperature generation and regulation and mammary glands

4

Homo sapiens

The genus and species names for modern humans

5

Morphology

The internal and external form and structure of an organism
Useful for: Aging, sexing, stature, phylogeny (ancestral and derived traits)

6

Phylogeny

The evolutionary history of a group of organisms; shows the evolutionary relationship between various organisms

7

Ancestral trait

Characteristic found in an ancestor and all (or most) of its descendants

8

Derived Trait

Characteristic found only in one descendant branch and not in the ancestral form

9

Shared Derived Trait

Characteristic found in more than one, but not all, descendant forms and not in the common ancestor

10

Epithelial Tissue

Tissues that cover the surfaces of our bodies

11

Three Types of Muscle Tissue

Smooth Muscle: Walls of blood vessels, stomach, and intestines
Skeletal Muscle: Connects to skeleton. Responsible for movement
Cardiac Muscle: Powers the contractions of the heart

12

Foramen Magnum

Opening on the bottom of the skull through which the spinal cord passes

13

Connective Tissue

Tissues responsible for the internal cohesion of th ebody

14

Dental Formula

One quarter of the full complement of teeth, counted from the centerline of the mouth back toward the throat
Human dental formula: 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars

15

Vertebral Column

Bony protection for the spinal cord consisting of vertebrae

16

Os Coxae

Two sets of three bones each that are fused to the sacrum and make up the pelvic girdle

17

Endocrine Glands

Tissues that secrete hormones

18

Hormones

Chemical agents produced in the endocrine glands that cause specific effects on target cells

19

Placentals

Mammals that have a placenta (the organ that links the circulatory systems of the fetus and mother in the uterus during gestation)

20

Mammary Glands

Glands in female mammals that produce a high-fat nutrient milk for the offspring

21

Suture

Anatomical line where the bony plates of the skull join together

22

Major Areas of Skeleton

Skull(cranium, mandible, teeth), vertebral column, rib cage, shoulder girldle and upper limb, pelvic girldle and lower limb

23

Circulatory System

Components: Blood, blood vessels, heart
-Transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste materials (to the kidney)
-Regulates body temperature

24

Respiratory System

Consists of the lungs and the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide

25

Nervous System

Based on communication between cells using electrical and chemical signals

26

Digestive System

Responsible for consuming, processing, and digesting food