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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (46)
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1

Genetics

The study of the basic structure and processes of DNA

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Genomics

The study of DNA including all associated molecules, chemicals and evolutionary patterns

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Human Genome

All the DNA in the human species

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Heredity

The passing of biological information from generation to generation (through reproduction)

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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

The chemical compound found in most living organisms, that contains basic information for the structure of life

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Nucleotide Bases

The four chemical bases that make up the core portion of DNA (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine)

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Chromosomes

Complex structures that house the supercoiled DNA in the nucleus

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Diploid

Having 46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs

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Three Main Function of DNA

Replication (Making copies of itself), protein synthesis (helping in the creation of the molecules that make up organisms), and regulation (in the first two functions)

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Replication

The process by which DNA copies itself

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Mitosis

The process of cell division and replication
-Replaces body cells as they die or are otherwise lost
-Creates two diploid cells from one mother cell

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Meiosis

The production of gametes (haploid cells) [Sex cells]
-Creates four haploid cells w/23 chromosomes each

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Haploid

Having 23 single chromosomes half the genetic complement; found in gametes

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Recombination

Shuffling of maternal and paternal chromosomes during meiosis
-Different combinations of the chromosomes from the parents

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Crossing Over

Genetic material on a chromosome from one parent is exchanged with the same section of the matching chromosome from the other parent

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Proteins

Building blocks of organic life
-Composed of a string of amino acids

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Protein Synthesis

The process by which the nucleotide "message" is taken from a gene, transcribed, and translated into a protein

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Amino Acids

Building blocks of proteins

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Polypeptide

A string of amino acids that folds in on itself and becomes a protein

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Triplet

-Three-nucleotide sequence
-A sequence for an amino acid
-Each triplet is a specific amino acid

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Transcription

Copying the DNA message to RNA

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Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

A molecule similiar to DNA that is responsible for taking the message from the DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosome in the cytoplasm and facilitating translation into a protein

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Messenger RNA (mRNA)

The form of RNA that takes the transcribed DNA message to the ribosome

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Codon

A three-nucleotide sequence in which the DNA's triplet code is written onto the mRNA

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Translation

Converting the mRNA message into a protein

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Ribosome

site of protein synthesis

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Transfer RNA (tRNA)

Form of RNA that brings amino acids to the ribosome

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Anticodon

Three-nucleotide sequence on a tRNA molecule that helps match the appropriate amino acid with a specific mRNA codon

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Gene

Segement of DNA that contains the sequence for a protein

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Allele

A variant sequence of nucleotides in a gene; a form of gene