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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (13)
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Homo heidelbergensis

-Oldest fossil 600,000 ya
-Smaller, seperated brow ridge
-Brain size within range of humans
-Smaller gut size and molars (than previous hominins)
-May have been using fire and cooking food
-Second Homo species to leave Africa (left with Acheulian industry.


Sima de los Huesos, Spain

-Homo heidelbergensis site
-500,000 to 400,000 ya
-At least 28 individuals found in a pit at the back of deep cave
-Researches believe they were thrown there by members of their species as an early burial practice
-Skulls had neandertal features



-H. Erectus site in China
-750,000 to 400,000 ya
-Oldowan tools found at site
Significance: Shows H. Erectus populations continued to exist in China and overlapped in time with H. Heidelbergensis


H. Floresiensis

-Dates between 100,000 to 60,000 ya
-Found on island of Flores in Indonesia
-Dwarfed size
-Very small brain size with archaic looking skull
-Flat, long foot
-Habitual biped (different gait)
-Result of rapid island dwarfing of H. Erectus on Flores
1 mya


Movius Line

-A theoretical line used to show the distribution of hand axes (bi-faced Acheulean industry) versus choppers (Oldowan)
-Disproved when Chinese archeologists found numerous sites in South China with Acheulean industry


Bose Basin, China

-Archeological site
-Yielded handaxes that are typically Acheulean
-Date between 830,000 to 700,000 ya


Terra Amata

-Acheological site along a French beach
-Believed to be a shelter constructed by H. Heidelbergensis
Incorrect for several reasons:
-Overhead view of site did not reveal some rocks were seperated by as much as 3ft
-Site taphonomy: Natural proccess along beaches work to great effect



-Excavation site in England
-500,000 ya
-Yieled Acheulian artifacts associated with Homo Heidelbergensis and lots of animal bones
Significance: Evidence that H. Heidelbergensis was butchering large animals



-German excavation site (337,000 to 300,000 ya)
-Wooden spears measuring 1.8–2.3 meters long were found among butchered horse bones
-Most likely used for thrusting (as opposed to throwing)
Significance: Evidence that H. Heidelbergensis were hunters


H. Neanderthalensis

-More robust than modern humans
-Post Crania: Bone crushing grip, bowed femur(from stress), elongated bowl-shaped pelvis
-Noses show adaptation to cold (warmed by striking medial projection)
-Very high rates of trauma (suggests frequent close encouters with dangerous prey)
-Extremely high energy requirements
-Consumed large quantities of meat
-Low genetic diversity, lived in small isolated groups
-Last Neandertal lived 41,000 to 39,000 ya


Allen's Rule

A warm-bodied mammal that lives in a cold place will have short limbs because this reduces heat loss by reducing surface-to-volume ratios
Note: Short legs of Neandertals


Bergmann's Rule

A more robust (bulky) body will help with heat conservation because of a smaller surface-to-volume ratio
Note: Barrel-shaped chest of the Neandertal, which reflects their bulky build


Nuclear Winter

Volcanic eruptions resulted in clouds of ash that may have covered Central and Eastern Europe
-Cold stresses (rise in energy requirements) on the bodies of infant and juvenile Neandertals may have slowed their growth and development