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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (44)
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1

Population

Cluster of individuals of the same species who share a common geographical area and find their mates more often in their own cluster than in others

2

Gene Pool

All the alleles within a population

3

Four Core Processes of Evolution

Mutation, Gene Flow, Genetic Drift, and Natural Selectoin

4

Mutation (know the various types)

changes ot the nucleotide sequence in the DNA
-the ultimate source of new variation in DNA
-Completely random
-must examine at the level of a population (for evolutionary importance)

5

Gene Flow

The movement of alleles within and between populations
INCREASES variation within populations
DECREASES variation between populations

6

Migration

Movement of alleles in and out of populations

7

Nonrandom Mating

Pattern of mating in which individuals mate preferentially with certain others

8

Assortative Mating

Mate slection based on similarity (positive assortative) or differences (negative assortative) in traits

9

Genetic Drift

-Random factors cause fluctuation in allele frequencies across generations
-Reduces variation in a pop. (to fixed point)
-greatest effect in small populations
DECREASES variation within populations
INCREASES variation between populations

10

Founder Effect

the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.

11

Bottleneck Effect

A dramatic reduction in the size of a population such that the genetic diversity in the population is substantially curtailed
-Losing genes in the gene pool due to the removal of individuals
-makes it easier for an allele to reach fixed frequency
-type of genetic drift

12

Exaptation

Trait that is currently serving a function other than that for which it orginally arose

13

Epigenetic system

The factors in the body that work in combination with the genes and proteins to affect phenotypes

14

Behavorial inheritance system

The system of imitation and learning by which behavior passes from generation to generation

15

Symbolic inheritance

The passing down of knowledge via symbols and language

16

Developmental Systems Theory (DST)

An approach that includes the development of biological and behavorial systems as a core part of evolutionary processes

17

Niche Construction Theory

The modification of niches by organisms and the mutual interactions between organisms and environments
-Organisms alter feature of the habitat making it better or worse=>As conditions change, natural selection operates on the phenotype=>Natural selection alters frequencies of genotypes/alleles

18

Biological Species

A group of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
-individuals can breed together and not with other species

19

Paleospecies

Species defined on the basis of fossil evidence
-Cannot observe whether or not they can breed with a certain species
-form, time period, geographical area, habitats

20

Allopatric Speciation

Mode of speciation that involves a separation and isolation of populations of the parent species
-Occurs when geographic barrier seperates parts of a population

21

Phyletic Gradualism (Darwinian Evolution)

The slow accumulation of small changes in populations such that over time enough change has occurred to result in a speciation event

22

Punctuated Equilibrium

Rapid biological changes in organisms followed by long, relatively static periods during which little biological change occurs

23

Homology/Parallel Evolution

Type of evolutionary process whereby species come to share phenotypic characteristics due to recent common ancestry

24

Homoplasy/Convergent Evolution

Type of evolutionary process whereby species come to share phenotypic characteristics due to similiar environmental pressures
-due to independent evolution

25

Fertility

Actual reproduction (# of offpsring produced)

26

Fecundity

Potential for reproduction (problem w/Neandrathals)

27

Population Genetics

Concerned with:
-the distribution of alleles within a population
-the variation in alleles between populations
-the variation in alleles in populations over time

28

Breeding Population

A group of organisms that chooses mates within thay group

29

Hardy-Weinberg Equation

A way to predict the number of expected genotypes in the offspring population based on the observed allele frequencies in the parental population.
-Predicts equilibrium between generations if certain assumptions are met

30

Consanguinous Mating (inbreeding)

Mating with relatives
-increases the frequency of homozygotes but does not change the allele frequencies
-big effects when alleles are rare (recessive diseases)