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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (24)
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Omo Kibish

-Excavation site in Ethiopia
-Discovery of earliest homo sapien fossils
-195,000 ya
-Some fossils had more archaic features, others were more modern in appearance (population variability)


Jebel Irhoud

-H. Sapien site in Morocco
-160,000 ya
-Individuals had some archaic features
-Shows that modern skeletal form is African (suppots MD)



-H. Sapien site in Ethiopia
-160,000 ya
-Modern shape of cranium
-Still had some robust/archaic features
-Shows that modern skeletal form is African (supports MD)


Skhul cave & Qafzeh Cave

-H. Sapien site in the Middle East (Isreal)
-115,000 to 90,000 ya
-Modern shape of cranium
-Rugged but not as archaic as H. Sapien fossils before 160,000 ya


Multi-Regional Model (MR)

Model assumes that H. Sapiens is an old species (1.7 mya=>Out of Africa1 ) and all populations of archaic humans tranisitioned to modern forms due to conistent gene flow and similar adaptive trajectories
-Assumes populations were in constant contact (more or less)
-Argues fossils due show widespread evolution into H. Sapien (features show continuity through time)
-Advocates believe all Homo species beginning 2 mya should be considered H. Sapiens


Recent African Origin Model

Model assumes that modern humans appeared as the result of a recent speciation event in Africa and subsequently dispersed throughout the rest of the world, replacing or assimilating all archaic human popuations
-Assumes hominins lived in small isolated populations
-Argues fossils do not show a widespread evolution into H. Sapien


mtDNA from modern living humans shows:

-More variation (mutations) in African compared to non-African populations
-Modern humans originated in Africa
-Supports RAO model


mtDNA from Neandertals shows:

-Average of 35 mtDNA differences (mutations) with modern humans and contemporary humans
-Average # of differences b/w humans is 11
-Neandertals are a separate species
-Supports RAO model


Ancient Nuclear DNA (aDNA)

-DNA isolated from ancient specimens
Significance: Researchers compared DNA of Neandertals to DNA of modern humans
-Showed Neandertals interbred with modern humans
-More genetic variants with living modern humans in Eurasia than Sub-Saharan Africa
-Provided support for MR model


Neandertal Y-Chromosome

-Doesn't exist in humans
-Suggests that LCA b/w humans and neandertals was 588,000 ya
-Some genes cause miscarriages suggesting incompatibilaty (with humans) and seperate lineage



-Extinct species of human in genus homo
-LCA b/w humans and Neandertals was 1 mya
-aDNA shows Denisovans interbred with the ancestors of of modern Melanesians and Australian laborigines
-Contributed HLA alleles to modern humans, which are important to our immune system


Multiple Disperal Model (MD)

Model assumes three major disperals of human poulations from Africa in the last 1.7 million years: H. Erectus, H. Heidelbergensis, H. Sapien
-Combines features of MR and RAO
-Incorporates gene flow, population isolation (bottleneck effect) , and African origin of modern humans
-Small amount of variation in mtDNA suggests bottleneck effect at the time of origin in modern humans (Sahara Desert)


Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) System

Part of the human immune system that helps signal the presence of foreign substances in the body
-most polymorphic human genetic system
-some variants associated with particular diseases


Lavallois Technique

Type of stone tool production that supplanted the Acheulean tool kit and provided a higher quality tool that could be refined for a wide variety of uses
-Beginning 250,000 ya
-flakes, points, and blades
-As well as scrapers, notches, and denticulates
-Special way to prepare core


Out of Africa 2a

The movement of anatomically or skeletally modern humans out of africa
-Expansion of early forms of modern humans


Levantine Region

-Has both early modern humans and Neandertals sites
-Both made and used Levallois, scrapers, denticulates, and so forth.
Note: Unless early human fossils are found at an excavation site archeologists cannot determine whether Paleolithic site is human or Neadertal.
-MR supporters use this to argue Neandertals and modern humans are the same species (population variation)



-Excavation site on Arabian Peninsula with Nubian Levallois point cores (specific to Africa)
Significance: Nubian levallois can be used to trace or document the movement of modern humans out of Africa
-Movement of early moderns during Out of Africa 2a does not seem to have been ultimately successful


Features of the African Middle Stone Age

•bifacial points (X-differed from Eurasia humans)
•use of bone to make tools (X)
•early use of red ochre (X)
• early use of shellfish for food
• artistic representations
• personal ornaments
• new types of stone projectile
Significance: Beginning of modern human behavior


Out of Africa 2b

The movement of behaviorally modern humans out of Africa 70,000 - 60,000 ya
-Most likely took the Southern route into Arabia across the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait
-Modern humans populate Australia (b/w 60,000-50,000 ya)


Tam Pa Ling

-Excavation site in Laos (SE Asia) with fossils of modern humans
-Dates between 60,000 - 50,000 ya
Significance: Serves as evidence for humans migrating out of Africa along the Southern Route.


Unusual Archeological Record in Europe (after 40,000 ya)

Behavorially modern humans in Europe:
•learned to make tailored clothing
•created amazing cave paintings and carved figurines •buried some people with astonishing amounts of grave goods such as ivory lances, thousands of ivory beads, red ochre, stone and ivory pendants, etc.


What factors may have allowed Out of Africa 2b by modern humans to be successful?

• controlled use of fire
• use of symbolism to frame personal relationships and the world
• use of compound glues for hafting
• invention of composite tools after 71,000 bp
• invention of the bow and arrow after 70,000 bp
• invention of snares to capture animals after 70,000 bp


Rugged Fitness Landscape Model

Suggests that different groups will use different combinations of technologies, equipment, and behaviors to adapt to their specific contexts
-Some argue that neandertal culture was not as rugged or flexible as modern human culture (led to extinction)


FOXP2 Gene

Two normal copies of FOXP2 are needed for the fine orofacial control of muscles used in producing language sounds.
-Also involved in the sequencing function in the basal ganglia
Significance: Neandertals had the modern human form of FOXP2 which means they could have had language (but lacked vowels and expression due to anatomy)