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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (16)
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Diversity in H. Sapiens

Our greatest amount of genetic diversity occurs within populations rather than between populations



• loss of bone density and muscle tissue
• dry skin
• reduced vision
• lessened or loss of hearing
• reduced ability to taste
• menopause/decline in sperm count
• loss of teeth
• more susceptibility to diseases
-Caused by cultural and genetic factors


Life Span

Theoretical maximum age determined by genetic predestiny


Life Expectancy

The average length of time a person can expect to live
-Includes many factors that may influence the lifespan of an individual


Hominins have:

-Become less robust over time
-Subject in some cases to Allen’s and Bergman’s rules
-In developed nations: Increased in stature and body mass



A nutrient important in DNA repair, nucleic acid synthesis, and cell division (e.g, spermatogenesis), and thus reproductive success.
-Darker skin in lower lattitudes offers protection from UV damage


Blood Group Variation

•some blood types appear to be associated with disease resistance or disease susceptibility
•the distribution of blood types is also due to Founders’ Effect and genetic drift (i.e. colonizing Americas)
•the malarial context is especially notable for natural selection on blood types (balanced polymorphism)



Short-term changes that occur when exposed to stress (e.g. sweating when hot)



Physiological changes that require days to months to develop (e.g., increase in red blood cells after moving to high-altitude)


Developmental Acclimatization

Changes that occur during the growth of an individual (e.g., larger chest size in high-altitudes)


Acclimation in cold stress

• vasoconstriction: constriction of blood vessels reduces blood flow and heat loss
• vasodilation: opening of blood vessels increases blood flow and heat loss
-Physiological response


Acclimation in heat stress

• radiation: body radiates heat but also picks up heat from other objects
• convection: heat exchange by contact, e.g., with clothing or the ground
• evaporation: sweating
• vasodilation


High-altitude hypoxia

With low pressure at high-altitude, the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood cells is too low to allow oxygen to diffuse into the tissues unless there are special physiological adjustments /adaptations


Developmental Acclimitization for high-altitude hypoxia:

Individuals born or brought early into high-altitudes develop:
-Larger chest circumference
-Greater lung volume
-Shorter stature


Modernization and Obesity

•changes in diet combined with a more sedentary lifestyle
•serious health problems (i.e. increased obesity)


Modernization and Blood Pressure

-blood pressure higher in modernized populations & increases with age
-blood pressure lower in traditional societies & does not increase with age