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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (16)
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1

Taxonomy Chart

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2

Bipedality

The use of two legs rather than four for locomotion

3

Bipedal anatomy

A set of anatomical adapations that make it possible for an animal to use two legs for locomotion

4

Sahelanthropus tchadensis

-Pre Australopith
-Controversial classification as a bidpedal animal or not
-Central Africa
-7 to 6 mya

5

Ardipithecus (Ar.) ramidus ramidus

-Pre Australopith
Unusual combination of features:
-Reduction in canine size
-Little sexual dimorphism
-Long arms and curved fingers; grasping foot
-Optional/Facultative bipedalism (bicondylar angle)
-Inefficient bipedalism with aboreal and terrestrial habitats

6

Australopith (Gracile) Species

-Genera: Australopithecus & Kenyanthropus
-Smaller bodied
-Habitual bipeds
-Long arms, curved fingers
-High degree of sexual dimorhpish

7

Austrolopith (Robust) Species

-Genus: Paranthropus
-Larger bodied
-Not ancestral to modern humans
-Saggital crest in males
-Post-orbital constriction (gabp)

8

Australopithecus afarensis (Au. afarensis)

-3.9 to 3 mya
-Gracile australopith
-High degree of sexual dimorphism
-Habitual biped
-Long arms with curved finger bones
-East Africa

9

Australopithecus africanus

-Gracile australopith
-South Africa
-3 to 2.4 mya
-Habitual biped
-Long arms; curved finger bones
-Mixed C3/C4 diets

10

Paranthropus robustus

-Robust australopith
-2 to 1.5 mya
-All fossils from South Africa
-Mixed C3/C4 diets

11

Paranthropus boisei

-Robust austrolopith
-2.3 to 1.3 mya
-All fossils found in East Africa
-C4 specialist diet

12

Megadonts

A term sometimes used to refer to Paranthropus because of their flat faces, flairing cheek bones, and extremely large molar teeth.

13

Osteodontokeratic Culture

A theory proposed by Raymond Dart that Australopiths were tool users or tool makers
-Incorrect b/c site taphonomy concerns
-Australopiths may have shaped bones and horns for digging instruments and termiting sticks
-Lomekwian stone tools (Kenya: 3.3 mya)-choppers and flakes

14

Characteristics of Bipedalism

-Position of foramen magnum
-Spinal column shows lordosis (s-shape)
-Bowl-shaped pelvis
-Femur at a bycondylar angle
-Locking patella and unequal femoral condyles
-Non divergent big toe and arches

15

Ideas for orgins of bipedalism:

• free up the hands to carry things
• ability to throw things
• see over tall grasses to spot predators
• efficiency for moving over long distances
• thermoregulation

16

Lordosis

S-shaped spine
Significance: Indication of bipedalism