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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (71):
1

embryonic stage

span two weeks through eight, during which time the embryo begins developing major physical structures such as heart and nervous system, hands and feet

2

fetal stage

span of 8 weeks to birth during which time the skeletal, organ, and nervous system become more developed and specialized

3

how many neurons in a newborn

100 million

4

teratogens

substances such as drugs or enviromental toxins, that impair the process of development

5

maternal malnourishment

increases the risk of giving birth to lower weight new borns that are more prone to illness and deficits in mental functioning

6

fetal alcohol syndrome

involves abnormalities in mental functioning, growth, and facial development in offspring of women who use alcohol during pregnancy

7

thalidomide

drug pregnant women used in Canada 1959-1962 to supress nausea, which caused birth defects

8

phocomelia

limb deformitires

9

reflexes

involuntary muscuar reactions to specific types of stimulations

10

smoking with baby

coralated to miscarrige, pre mature and under weight and heart defects

11

preform infants

the chance of a baby's survival if it is born at only 25 weeks is about 50% and the babies do survive suffer permanent damage to brain and organs

12

SIDS

a syndrome in which infants die because they stop breathing

13

smoking causes sids to be..

3X more likely

14

synaptogenesis

the forming of new synaptic connections

15

synaptic pruning

the loss of weak nerve cell connections

16

rooting reflex

stimulating the corner of infants mouth causes baby to move head toward the source of the stimulation and start sucking

17

mono reflex

newborns react with a startle response whenever they lose support of their head

18

grasping reflex

touching babys palm causes them to tighten their grip with surprising strength

19

assimilation

acquire new knowledge by relating it to what we already know

20

accommodation

learning by adjusting old knowledge in the face of new information

21

sensorimotor stage

birth to age 2 not yet capable of any thought seperate of what they can hear, taste

22

object permanence

objects continue to exist when we are unable to directly perceive them

23

preoperational stage

age 2-7, imagination, behavior, pretend

24

conservation

visual ex) with dough

25

scale errors

child tries to fit into toy car

26

concrete operations

logically, numbers and classify objects

27

formal operational stage

reasoning, abstract

28

cognitive development

study of changes in memory, thought ans reasoning processes that occur throughout the lifespan

29

core knowledge hypothesis

idea that infants are born with some knowledge about the world such as numbers ect

30

zone of proximal development

development is deal when children attempt skills and activities that are beyond what they can do alone

31

hibitution

infants do not spend as much tie looking at the visual stimuli or events that they already know

32

scoffolding

a highly attentive approach to teaching in when the teacher matches guidance to the leaners needs

33

dishabituation

surprising/unfamiliar visual simuli or events tend to capture a infants attention

34

attachment

the enduring emotional bond formed between individuals

35

John Watson

don't hug/ kiss and shake hands

36

mary ainswsorth

present of stranger when caregiver gone

37

stranger anxiety

children discomfort and emotional distress in the presence of strangers

38

strange situation

as a way of measuring infant attachment by observing how infants behave when exposed to different experience that involve anxiety and comfort

39

secure attachment

shows some distress, and avoids stranger when caregiver returns child seeks comfort

40

two types of insecure attachment

anxious/resistant and avoidant

41

anxious/resistant

clingy to caregiver, upset when leaves, fearful to stranger, when caregiver returns they seek comfort but also resists and pushes away

42

avoidant

acts as though they dont need caregiver child not upset when leaves, returns and does not seek attention/contact

43

disorganized attachment pattern

cant decide it they should seek comfort or avoid contact and they alternately act to seek or avoid contact with caregiver or they become paralyzed

44

self awareness

children gradually development an appreciation of themselves, separate from other people

45

egocentrism

lacking the capacity to understand that other people have perspective, thoughts, and feelings that differ from ones own

46

theory of mind

the ability to recognize the thoughts, beliefs and exceptions of others and to understand that these can be different from ones own

47

false belief task

smartie/pencil task test- whether children will understand that another person holds a false belief, because person doesnt know info child knows

48

attachment behavioral system

which is focused on meeting our own needs for security

49

caregivering behavioural system

which is focused on meeting our own needs for security

50

interjection

the internalization of the conditional regard of significant others

51

inductive discipline

which involves explaining the consequences of a chick actions on other people activating empathy for others feeling

52

testosterone and estrogen

stimulated by hypothalamus

53

primary sex traits

changes in the body that are part of reproduction

54

secondary sex traits

are changes in the body that are not parft of reproduction

55

menarche

the onset of menstruation

56

spermarche

their first ejaculation of sperm

57

delay gratification

putting off immediate temptations in order to focus on longer term goals

58

identity

clear sense of what kind of person you are, what types of people you belong with, and what roles you should play in society

59

delaying gratification

putting off immediate temptations in order to focus on longer term goals

60

preconventional morality

selfish motives guide moral decision making maximize =reward minimize punishment

61

conventional morality

society laws and conventional attitudes guide moral decision making

62

postcontional morality

moral decision on - making is based on concerns about human rights and justice

63

social intuitionist model

moral behaviour depends on peoples intuitions and emotional, rather than on their deep reflexes and reasoning abilities

64

dimensions that determine a successful transition into adulthood

1. social interactions
2. managing new freedoms
3. overcoming new challenges

65

dementia

refers to mind to severe disruption of mental functioning,memory loss, disorientation, poor judgement ad decision making -14% of people over 71 have this

66

alzheimers disease

a degenerative and terminal condition resulting in severe damage of entire brain 10% of dementia causes

67

build up of beta-amyloid between neurons resulting in

death of those cells

68

tangles of Tau proteins with neurons resulting

in neuron to hot function

69

what % marrige end in divorce in canada

40

70

four horsemen of the acocalypse

1. critism
2. contempt
3. defensivness
4. stonewalling

71

generativity

being engaged in meaningful and productive work as well as making contributions to future generations