Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

psychology > Chapter 15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (80):
1

clinical psychology

area of psychology devoted to understanding and treating mental disorder

2

trepanning

a hole drilled into a persons skull to release evil spirits

3

common treatment of mental disorder in early days

exorcisms

4

caging

restricting movement

5

birching

beating the disorder out of people

6

tranquilizer

minimizing sensory inputs

7

water therapy

spray disorder out

8

rotational therapy

shock and vomit the disorder out

9

bloodletting

removing bad blood

10

philippepinel + dorothea dix

advocated against rotational therapy and moral treatment movement

11

how many canadians were in psychiatric hospitals in 1950

66,000

12

chlorpromazine

seemed effective at eliminating the worst symptoms

13

what happened during 1955-1985

deinstitutionalization

14

over 30 years how much did mental institutions drop and caused increase in what

80% and homelessness

15

biopsychological model

psychological, social, and biological

16

maladaptive

1- cause a person or around them distress
2- impair person daily functioning
3- increase likihood that person will experience injury

17

1840 US census

citizens fell into idiocy = black americans

18

what did they do in WW2

mental disorder screening
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)

19

1952 DSM

standard manual to aid in the diagnosis of disorders
350+ mental disorders

20

etiology

origins or causes

21

5th edition DSM

2013 symptoms, etiology, prognosis

22

DSM problem #1

different therapist will generate different diagnoses for the same person

23

DSM problem #2

mental disorder changes as our culture changes across time

24

propetomania (mental disorder)

black slaves having the urge to run away

25

DSM problem #3

labelling people with mental disorder make problems seem permanent/ unchangeable

26

mental disorder defense

claims that the defendant was in such an extreme abnormal state of mind when committing the crime that they could not see actions were legally wrong

27

David Rosenham

could they get admitted to mental hospital
study- being sane in insane places 2, 100 pills given

28

what % of homicides are committed by people not diagnosed with mental problem

95%

29

1 in how many people with severe mental illness had been a victim of crime in one year

4

30

how many times more likely for someone with psychosis to be victims of violent crime than perpetrators

14 times

31

DSM problem #4

some diagnosis might be a way to justify controlling inconvenient behavior with meds

32

what percent how boys between 4-17 who have ever gotten ADHD diagnosis

13.2%

33

what % of american pop age 4-17 taking ADHD drugs in 2011 / in 2007

6.1% / 25%

34

DSM problem #5

the numbers of symptoms that a person must have to receive a disorder is arbitrary

35

personality disorder

particularly unusual patterns of behavior that are maladaptive, distressing to ones self and others and resistant to change

36

Cluster A personality

unusual and problematic

37

Cluster A personality types

-paranoid personality disorder: irrationally fearful/ untrusting
-schizoid personality disorder: socially uninterested, not influenced by others opinions
-schizotypical personality disorder: highly superstitious

38

Cluster B personality

unpredictable/ unusual emotional reactions

39

Cluster B personality types

-antisocial personality disorder: no remorse, empathy, cruel
-borderline personality disorder: fluctuate from pos to neg emotional status
-histrionic personality disorder: outrageous types, center of attention
-narcisstic personality disorder: inflated of self-importance, need for attention

40

Cluster C personality

highly anxious and inhibited behavior

41

Cluster C personality types

-avoidant personality disorder: feelings of social inadequacy, sensitive to rejection
-dependent personality disorder:needy in social realtion
-obsessive complusive disorder: rigid, perfectionist

42

for all cluster B disorders
for last three
for first one

- childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse
-low self confidence
-lack of feeling stress

43

co-morbidity

the presence of two disorders simultaneously

44

dissociative disorder

category of mental disorder characterized by a split between conscious awareness from feeling, cognition memory and identity

45

dissociative fugue

when an individual loses large chunks of their identity and personal history, in absene of any neurological damage

46

depresonalization disorder

when individual develops thr strong impression that they are not actually a part of their own body

47

dissociative amnesia

when person loses their memory for significant chunks of their life experience without any neurological basis for explaining it

48

dissocaitive identity disorder (DID)

also known as multiple personality disorder is when a person experiences their personality as having divided into separate entities called alters

49

anxiety disorder

characterized by fear responses that are out of proportion to the true threat by the source of ones fear

50

generalized anxiety disorder

people with this disorder react with intense fear to normal daily stressors/ life challenges

51

panic disorder

an anxiety disorder marked by occasional episodes of sudden, very intense fear (panic attack)

52

agoraphobia

occurs when person fear of having an panic attack in public places causes them to avoid public space

53

specific phobias

intense fear of a specific object, activity, or organisms

54

social phobias (social anxiety disorder)

chronic concerns over being judged neg by others and constant fear of being publicly humiliated

55

exposure

to the source of ones fear is the best way to overcome these fears

56

mood disorders

the disorders all relate to severe disruptions in a person emotional state, resulting in maladaptive behavior

57

major depression

prolonged periods of sadness, feelings or worthlessness, and hopelessness

58

bipolar disease

characterized by extreme highs and lows inmood, motivation, and energy

59

% bipolar in a year
% bipolar in a lifetime
%depression in year
% depression in lifetime

2.5%
4%
7%
16%

60

stable attributions

interpretations for failures and difficulties that focus on a belief that ones flaws are permanent/ unchangeable

61

global attributions

failures and difficulties in one area as reflecting a general emptiness and lack pf capacity in any area

62

serotonin circuits

(responsible for maintaining energy levels and pos emotion) seem to be under active in people who develop major depression

63

serotonin circuits: 1) limbic system

(responsible for emotion and processing emotionally- charged info) is over reactive in people who develop major depression

64

serotinin circuits 2) dorsal region of frontal lobes

(for maintaining concentration and inhibiting neg thoughts) is under active in people who develop major depression

65

schizophrenia

involves a severe disruption in association between persons thoughts about and perception of reality

66

where does schizo arise from

genetics and neg environmental influences

67

prodromal phase

individual experiences cognitive deficits, increase confusion, and problems maintaining logical thinking

68

active phase

person will develop strange delusions that are not consistent with reality

69

residual phase

symptoms decline, suppressed willingness to engage in activities or social contact

70

paranoid schizo

paranoid delusions

71

disorganized schizo

incoherent illogical thoughts, behavior

72

catatonic schizo

remain paralyzed in unusual positions for long periods of time

73

undifferentiated schizo

symptoms are a combo of symptoms from other subtypes

74

residual schizo

symptoms are typical for either the promodal phase or residual phases

75

pos symptoms of schizo

symptoms that result in individuals engaging in maladaptive behavior

76

neg symptoms of schizo

symptoms that generate an absence of adaptive behavior - social isolation

77

hallucinations

alterations in perception, such that s person hears, sees, feels, or tastes, something that does not actually exist, except in their mind

78

delusions

beliefs not based on reality ( at least from the perspective of person general culture)

79

schizo has been linked to deficiencies where?

- prefrontal cortex
-larger brain ventricles
-overactive dopmine circuits: hullcinations
-underactive gluamate circuits: frontal lobes and hypocampus

80

neurodevelopmental hypothesis

if mother is stressed when prego = child more likely to develop schizo