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social psychology

the study of how other people influence what we think, feel and do



taking on for ourselves the behaviors, emotional displays, and facial expressions of others


chameleon effect

how people mimic others non-consciously automatically copy other behaviors even without realizing it


social norms

the (usually unwritten) guidelines for how to behave in social contexts


kurt lewin

behavior is a function of the person and the environment


social loafing

occurs when an individual puts kess effort into working on a task with others


social loafing 4 steps

1. avoid low- efficacy beliefs
2. ensure that all groups members view eachothers contributions as valuable
3. ensure that all group members place high value on the outcome of the project
4. ensure that all group members are putting in a strong effort and that they know how hard all of the other members are working


conformity pressure

engaging in behavior because of actions, encouragement or insistence of others


social facilitation

occurs when ones performance is affected by the presence of others


group think

refers to this stifling of diversity that occurs when individuals are not able to express their true perspectives, instead having to focus on agreeing with others and maintaining harmony in the group


normative influence

a social pressure to adopt a groups perspective in order to be accepted , rather than rejected by a group


informational influence

which occurs when people internalize the values and beliefs of the group, coming to believe the same things and feel the same ways themselves


soloman asch and 4 ways to make it difficult with his findings

asch's conformity experiment:
However, when Asch had confederates give the same wrong answers before the participants gave their judgment, 75% of participants gave the wrong answer on at least one trial
Each time confederates provided the wrong answer, about 1/3 of the participants provided the same wrong answer.
1. high females in group
2. close friends
3. uncertainty of task
4. required to express ideas in a public way


bystander effect

the presence of other people actually reduces the likeihood of helping behavior (so many other people there that no one intervened) -kitty genovese


diffusion of responsibility

which occurs when the responsibility for taking action is spread across more than one person thus making no single individual feel personally responsible


pluralistic ignorance

occurs when there is a dis junction between the private belief of individuals and the public behavior they display to others
-When participants were alone, 75% of them investigated the smoke within 6 minutes.
-When participants shared the room with two unconcerned confederates, only 10% of them investigated the smoke within 6 minutes.


social roles

are more specific sets of expectations for how someone in a specific position should behave


explicit processes

which correspond roughly to "conscious" thought, are deliberative effortful, realitivly slow, and generally under our intentional control


implicit processes

comprise our "unconscious" thought: they are intuitive, automatic, effortless, very fast, and operate largely outside of our intentional control


association test implicit processes

white people respond negatively when they see a black face and positively for a white face


dual process models

models of behavior that account for both implicit and explicit processes


stanley milgram

effect of punishment on memory (shock)
-When participants were alone, 75% of them investigated the smoke within 6 minutes.
- When participants shared the room with two unconcerned confederates, only 10% of them investigated the smoke within 6 minutes.


philip zimbardo

standard prison study


person perception

the processes by which individuals categorize and form judgements about other people


social cognition

how people mentally process, perceive and think about other people


ta-nahisi coates

quote of racism



as assumption people make about another individual, because of the social group and that they belong to



a person's belief about the characteristics possessed by members of a social group



behaviors that place members of a social group at a disadvantage over members of another


thin slices of behavior

Students’ evaluations after only the first 30 seconds of exposure to their instructor are surprisingly similar to their final course evaluation
-Other studies show that people will judge trustworthiness, competence, likeability, and aggressiveness after only spending 500 ms viewing a photograph of another person. (TINDER)
-Other studies show that people are better than chance at judging male’s sexual orientation after exposure to a picture of them for only 50 ms.


self fulfilling prophecies

If you have a biased attitude toward someone, then your own actions might cause you to confirm your pre-existing belief
- In a study involving elementary school children, teachers were told that some of their students were exceptionally bright, even though the researchers selected those children at random.
- At the end of the year, the actual IQ scores of those children were significantly higher.


false consensus effect

tenancy to project the self-concept onto the social world is known as this


self-serving biases

Biases that support confidence in our own beliefs and natural abilities
-We tend to take personal credit for our successes, but generate excuses based on external factors for our failures.


internal attribution

whereby the observer explains the behavior of the actor (driver) in terms of some innate quality of that person (being aggressive)


external attributions

where the observer explains the actor behavior as the result of the situation


self vs other attributions

Attributing other people’s positive or negative actions as reflecting their stable personality traits is called the FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR


naive realism

is the bias to think that our interpretation of events is the accurate one and that those who disagree are not of touch with reality


fundamental attribution error (FAE)

tendency to over emphasize internal attribution and under emphasize external factors is known as this



groups we feel positively toward and identify with


outgroups a

are those "other" groups that we dont identify with


ingroup bias

positive bias toward the self get extended to include ones ingroups, people become motivated to see their ingroups as superior to their outgroups


minimal group paradigm

Researchers divide people into groups based on an irrelevant feature,
-such as whether people preferred one or another painting or based on a coin flip.
-In a Brock University study, participants were randomly assigned to
“Group X” or “Group Y”.
-Then, when given the opportunity to distribute money between members of the two groups, participants gave more money to in-group than to out-group members.


contact hypothesis

which predicts that social contact between members of different groups is extremely important to overcoming prejudice


the elaboration likeihood model

people will be persuaded by logical arguments if they care enough and if they are not distracted by others concerns


central route to persuasion

is all about substance occurs when people pay close attention to all context of a message, evaluate the evidence presented and examine the logic of the arguments


construal level theory

describes how info affects us differently depending on our psychological distance from the info


%of people who signed up for CATV after info
% of people who signed up for CATV after imagination ad



identifiable victim effect

people tend to experience greater concern to provide assistance when they hear about an individual suffering than an abstract group


analytical system

operates more at the explicit level on consciousness is slower, and more methodical and uses logic and discursive thinking


experiential system

operates more implicit, quickly and intuitively and is predominantly emotional


attitude inoculation

strategy for strengthening attitudes and making them more resistant to change by first exposing people to a weak counter -argument and them refuting that argument


processing fluency

which is the ease with which info is processed
low: confusion- neg response


door-in-the-face technique

involves asking for something relatively big, then following with a request for something small


cognitive dissonance theory

when we hold inconsistent beliefs this creates a kind of aversive inner tension or dissonance we are then motivated to reduce this tension in whatever way we can


tappers and listeners

tap out songs- think 50% will know
listen to the tapping and try to guess song- only 2.5% get it



social norm in which people feel pressure to do something for you, if they have received something from you


leon festinger

lab demonstration 1$ thought task was good and 20$ thought it was bad. people who were told to say is was fun rated it funner than those who didnt