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Flashcards in Chapter 10: Antimicrobial Treatment Deck (47)
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1

Postantibiotic Era

Point in time where the drugs we currently have are no longer effective

2

Goal of antimicrobial Chemotherapy

administer a drug to an infected person that destroys the infective agent without harming the host’s cells

3

A drug must be able to...(3)

(1) be easy to administer and able to reach the infectious agent anywhere in the body; (2) be absolutely toxic to the infectious agent and absolutely nontoxic to the host; (3) remain in the body as long as needed and be safely and easily broken down and excreted

4

Why do bacteria and fungi produce antibiotics in nature?

to inhibit the growth of competing microbes in the same habitat

5

Genera of bacteria antibiotics are derived from

Streptomyces and Bacillus

6

Genera of molds antibiotics are derived from

Penicillium and Cephalosporium

7

3 factors that must be known before beginning antimicrobial therapy

(1) the nature of the microorganism causing the infection; (2) the degree of the microorganism’s susceptibility (or sensitivity) to various drugs; (3) the overall medical condition of the patient

8

Sources from which specimens can be obtained from the patient (3)

body fluids, sputum, stool

9

How would you treat a sore throat caused by Streptococcus pyogenes?

Penicillin

10

The two bacterium responsible for meningitis in children.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (most common) and Neisseria meningitidis

11

Bacteria that commonly show resistance to drugs (5)

Staphylococcus species, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and aerobic gram-negative enteric bacilli

12

When is testing for drug susceptibility unnecessary? (2)

(1) fungal and protozoan infections; (2) If that patient is allergic to certain antibiotics (duh)

13

Kirby-Bauer Technique

(1) surface of an agar plate is spread with bacteria; (2) small discs containing a prepared amount of antibiotic are placed on the plate; (3) zone of inhibition surrounding the discs is measured and compared with a standard for each drug; (4) antibiogram provides data for drug selection

14

Tube Dilution Tests

A more sensitive and quantitative test than the Kirby-Bauer Technique that involves diluting antimicrobial solutions serially in tubes of broth; each tube is inoculated with pure culture

15

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)

the smallest concentration (highest dilution) of drug that visibly inhibits growth

16

Purpose of tube dilution tests

useful in determining the effective dosage and providing a comparative index against other antimicrobials

17

Factors that contribute to the failure of a drug (3)

(1) the inability of the drug to diffuse into that body compartment (brain, joints, skin); (2) resistant microbes in the infection that didn't make it into the sample collected for testing; (3) an infection caused by more than one pathogen (mixed), some of which are resistant to the drug

18

Therapeutic Index

the ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans as compared to its minimum effective (therapeutic) dose (dose required Vs minimum impact); the smaller the ratio, the greater the potential for drug reactions; the drug with the highest therapeutic index has the widest margin of safety

19

TI = 1.1

Risky choice on the therapeutic index

20

TI = 10

Safer choice on the therapeutic index

21

Factors that a physician must check for in a patient history before prescribing antibiotics (7)

(1) preexisting conditions that might influence the activity of the drug; (2) history of allergy to a certain class of drugs; (3) underlying liver or kidney disease; (4) infants, the elderly, and pregnant women require special precautions; (5) intake of other drugs can result in increased toxicity or failure of one or more drugs; (6) genetic or metabolic abnormalities; (7) site of infection, route of administration, cost

22

Goal of antimicrobial drugs (5)

(1) DISRUPT; (2) INHIBIT; (3) INTERFERE; (4) DESTROY; (5) SELECTIVELY TOXIC

23

DISRUPT...

cell processes or structures of bacteria, fungi, or protozoa

24

INHIBIT...

virus replication

25

INTERFERE...

with the function of enzymes required to synthesize or assemble macromolecules

26

DESTROY...

structures already formed in the cell

27

SELECTIVELY TOXIC...

kill or inhibit the actions or synthesis of molecules in microorganisms but not vertebrate cells

28

Drugs with excellent selective toxicity...

block the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall (penicillins); human cells lack the chemical peptidoglycan and are therefore unaffected by the drug

29

Goals of Chemotherapy

identifying structural and metabolic needs of a living cell and removing, disrupting, or interfering with these requirements

30

Antimicrobial Drug Categories (5)

(1) inhibition of cell wall synthesis; (2) inhibition of nucleic acid structure and function; (3) inhibition of protein synthesis; (4) interference with cell membrane structure and function; (5) inhibition of folic acid (vitamin B) synthesis for several metabolic functions in the body