Chapter 13: Specific Immunity and Immunization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13: Specific Immunity and Immunization Deck (33)
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1

Immunocompetence

the ability of the body to react with countless foreign substances

2

Antigens and Immunogens

molecules that stimulate a response by B and T lymphocytes

3

2 examples of antigens

(1) protein or polysaccharide molecules on or inside cells and viruses; (2) foreign molecules;

4

Will antibodies produced against one virus work against a different virus?

No

5

True or False: All lymphocytes arise from the same basic
stem cell type.

True

6

B cells mature where?

Bone marrow

7

T cells mature where?

The thymus (located in front of the heart and behind the sternum.)

8

True or False: A few leukocytes are produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell.

False: ALL leukocytes are derived from hematopoietic stem cells.

9

Leucocytes' average life span

3-4 days

10

Name the five leukocytes

Monocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocytes, & Neutrophils

11

Myeloid Progenitor

the cells that create any blood cell that is not a leukocyte

12

Lymphoid Progenitor

the cells that create WBC's (natural killer cells, B and T lymph cells, and plasma cells)

13

Dendritic Cells

ingest pathogens and present to T lymphocytes

14

Immunoglobulin

large glycoprotein molecules that serve as the antigen receptors of B cells

15

Epitope

the portion of an antigenic molecule to which a lymphocyte responds & primary signal to the immune system that the molecule is foreign

16

Haptens

small foreign molecules that are too small by themselves to elicit an immune (drugs); They just "hapten" to slip by

17

Lipoproteins

cell membrane

18

Glycoproteins

blood cell markers

19

Nucleoproteins

DNA complexed to proteins; not pure DNA

20

Polysaccharides

certain bacterial capsules

21

Lipopolysaccharides

outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria

22

Natural Immunity

any immunity that is acquired through the normal biological experiences of an individual (get sick, get immunity)

23

Artificial Immunity

protection from infection obtained through medical procedures such as vaccines and immune serum

24

Active Immunity

occurs when an individual receives immune stimulus that activates B and T cells to produce immune substances
such as antibodies (vaccines)

25

Passive Immunity

occurs when an individual receives
antibodies from another human or animal, short-term effectiveness (through breast milk or immune serum)

26

Whole cell or virus vaccines

live, attenuated; or killed cells or inactivated viruses

27

Attenuated

vaccine created by reducing the virulence of a pathogen, but still keeping it viable cells or viruses

28

Antigenic Molecules

subunits derived from cultures of cells or viruses; subunits synthesized to mimic natural molecules; manufactured via genetic engineering

29

Conjugated Vaccines

subunits conjugated with proteins to make them more immunogenic; used for young immune systems that have a hard time recognizing foreign microbes

30

Difficult to design vaccines for _________ or _______ viral infections.

latent or persistent