Chapter 10: Specific Drugs & Their Purpose Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10: Specific Drugs & Their Purpose Deck (15)
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1

Penicillins G and V

Most important natural forms used to treat gram-positive cocci, some gram-negative bacteria

2

Methicillin, nafcillin, cloxacillin

useful in treating infections caused by some penicillinase-producing bacteria (resistant to penicillin)

3

Mezlocillin, azlocillin

Extended spectrum; can be substituted for combinations of antibiotics

4

Cephalothin, cefazolin

Most effective against gram-positive cocci, few gram-negative bacteria

5

Doripenem, imipenem (Carbapenems)

Powerful but potentially toxic; reserved for use when other drugs are not effective

6

Aztreonam (Carbapenems)

Narrow-spectrum; used to treat gram-negative aerobic bacilli causing pneumonia, septicemia, & UTI's; effective for those allergic to penicillin

7

Bacitracin (Carbapenems)

Narrow-spectrum; used to combat superficial skin infections caused by streptococci and staphylococci; main ingredient in Neosporin

8

Aminoglycosides (streptomycin)

Insert on sites on the 30S subunit and cause the misreading of the mRNA leading to abnormal proteins

9

Tetracyclines (terramycin)

Block the attachment of tRNA on the A acceptor site and stop further protein synthesis

10

Tigecycline (Glycylcyclines)

Newer derivative of tetracycline; effective against bacteria that have become resistant to tetracyclines

11

Clindamycin

Broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat penicillin-resistant staphylococci, serious anaerobic infections of the stomach and intestines unresponsive to other antibiotics.

12

Linezolid

Synthetic drug from the oxazolidinones; novel drug that inhibits the initiation of protein synthesis; used to treat antibiotic-resistant organisms such as MRSA and VRE

13

Sulfonamides

Interfere with folate metabolism by blocking enzymes required for synthesis of tetrahydrofolate, which is needed by the cells for folic acid synthesis and eventual production of DNA, RNA, and amino acids

14

Silver Sulfadiazine

Used to treat burns, eye infections

15

Trimethoprim

Inhibits the enzymatic step immediately preceding the step inhibited by sulfonamides; trimethoprim often given in conjunction with sulfamethoxazole; Used to treat pneumocystis jiroveci in AIDS patients