Chapter 3: Prokaryotic Profile Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Prokaryotic Profile Deck (79)
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1

How to distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes

the way their DNA is packaged (lack of nucleus)-circular DNA, the plasmid and the thread-like chromosome; the makeup of their cell wall (peptidoglycan and other unique chemicals); their internal structure (lack of membrane-bounded organelles)

2

All bacterial cells possess...

a cell membrane cytoplasm ribosomes a cytoskeleton one (or a few) chromosome(s)

3

Some bacterial cells possess...

flagella, pili, and fimbriae an outer membrane plasmids inclusions endospores intracellular membranes

4

Average size of prokaryotic cells

1 um

5

Pleomorphism

Cells of one species may vary in shape and size; caused by variations in cell wall structure

6

Cocci

spheres

7

Diplococci

two spheres

8

Streptococci

chain of spheres

9

Tetrad

4 coccis in a square

10

Sarcina

cubic configuration of 8 cocci

11

Staphylococci

grape-like clusters of cocci

12

Name this bacterial shape

Coccus 

13

Name this bacterial shape

Coccobacillus

14

Name this bacterial shape

Vibrio (gently curved)

15

Name this bacterial shape

Bacillus 

16

Name this bacterial shape

Spirillum

17

Name this bacterial shape

Spirochete

18

Three parts of a flagella

Filament; Hook; Basal Body

19

Flagellin

the protein that composes the filament of the flagella

20

Pilli

Projection that helps bacteria to fasten onto surfaces such as host membranes. 

21

Monotrichous

Single flagella 

22

Lophotrichous

small bunches or tufts of flagella

23

Amphitrichous

Flagella at both poles of the cell

24

Peritrichous

flagella dispersed randomly over the cell

25

26

Chemotaxis

Chemical signals that trigger bacterial movement

27

Runs (movement)

smooth linear movement towards a stimulus

28

Tumbles (movement)

flagellar rotation reverses, causing cell to stop and change its course 

29

Fimbriae

short, thin, hairlike, proteinaceous appendages up to 1,000/cell; mediate attachment to surfaces
 

30

Capsule

Outer layer of cell usually composed of polysaccharides; well organized and not easily removed from cell