Chapter 1: Introduction to Microbiology (PPT) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Introduction to Microbiology (PPT) Deck (32)
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1

Name the microorganisms

bacteria
algae
protozoa
helminths

2

Characteristics of viruses are

parasitic
protein-coated genetic elements
dependent on their infected host
connected with the evolution of microbes and humans

3

Historical uses of microbes

bread production
alcohol production
cheese production
treatment of wounds and lesions-production of antibiotics or secondary metabolites, eg enzymes
Bioremediation

4

Genetic Engineering

an area of biotechnology that manipulates the genetics of microbes, plants, and animals for creating new products and genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

5

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

used as a vector to introduce foreign genes into plants

6

Recombinant DNA Technology

The transfer of genetic material from one organism to another to deliberately alter the DNA and produce a specific product

7

Pseudomonos

Bacteria used to clean up oil in Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

8

Emerging Diseases

new infectious diseases such as AIDS, hepatitis C, and viral encephalitis

9

Re-emerging Diseases

older diseases such as tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) once thought to be under control are again becoming a serious threat

10

Helicobacter pylori

Bacteria that cuases stomach ulcers

11

Louis Pasteur

Used a series of experiments with swan-necked flasks to disprove abiogenesis

12

Robert Hooke

studied household objects, plants, and trees using a simple magnifying glass

13

Leeuwenhoeke

manufactured simple microscopes to see the threads in fabrics; observed “animals” in a drop of rainwater; also observed “animalcules” scraped from his and others’ teeth

14

Joseph Lister

use of aseptic techniques in surgery in the mid-1800s

15

Ferdinand Cohn

Discovered endospores

16

Oliver Wendell Holmes and Ignaz Semmelweis

Importance of handwashing

17

Robert Koch

developed a series of postulates that verified the germ theory of disease and established a link between a microbe and the disease it caused

18

Polymerase Chain Reaction

breakthrough in our ability to detect tiny amounts of DNA and then amplify them into quantities sufficient for studying (used in forensic labs and other DNA detections)

19

Biofilms

Biofilms are accumulations of bacteria and other microbes on surfaces.

20

Eukaryotes

contain organelles – small, double-membrane- bound structures that perform specific functions in a cell and include the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts

21

Prokaryotes

about 10 times smaller than eukaryotes; lack organelles; all prokaryotes are microorganisms

22

Microorganisms from largest to smallest

Helminths
Protozoa
Bacterium
Virus

23

Characteristics of Cells

Cells tend to be spherical, polygonal, cubical, or cylindrical; protoplasm is encased in a cell or cytoplasmic membrane; have chromosomes containing DNA and ribosomes for protein synthesis; exceedingly complex in function

24

Scientific name is a combination of...

scientific name is a combination of the genus and species names

25

How do you format scientific names (print and handwritten)?

scientific names are italicized when they are written in print and underlined when they are written by hand

26

How do you format scientific names when abbreviated?

the genus name is abbreviated to the first initial followed by a period and the full species name is written

27

Organization of taxonomy (largest to smallest)

domain
kingdom
phylum or division
class
order
family
genus
species

28

Darwin and Haeckel

Proposed two kingdoms: plants and animals

29

Haeckel later added what two kingdoms?

Protista and Monera

30

Whittaker

Added the kingdom Fungi