Chapter 15: Diagnosing Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15: Diagnosing Infections Deck (51)
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1

Light microscopy aids in the observation of these items.

cell shape, size, and arrangement; Gram stain reaction, acid-fast reaction; endospores, granules, and capsules

2

What can you use to pinpoint harder to see characteristics such as cell wall, flagella, pili, or fimbriae?

Electron Microscopy

3

Name the biochemical characteristics used to diagnose infectious agents. (5)

(1) Enzyme production, (2) fermentation of sugars, (3) capacity to digest complex polymers, (4) production of gas, (5) sensitivity to antibiotics

4

Which method produces more rapid results?

Genotypic (automated)

5

Viable Noncultured (VNC)

microbes that can't be grown in the laboratory that are identified by genotypic methods

6

Immunological Methods

patient sample is tested for the presence of specific antibodies to a suspected pathogen

7

A Gram stain of a sputum sample from a patient is an example of a ______ method of microbial identification. A. genotypic B. immunologic C. phenotypic D. histologic E. None of the choices is correct.

A. phenotypic

8

"Clean Catch" Urine Sampling (describe the method)

taken by washing the external urethra and collecting the urine midstream

9

How to collect a skin sample

skin can be swabbed or scraped with a scalpel to expose deeper layers; wounds must be cleansed prior to swabbing

10

Sterile Material Sampling

blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissue fluids must be taken by STERILE NEEDLE ASPIRATION

11

Signs of microbial infections (4)

(1) fever, (2) wound exudate, (3) mucus production, and (4) abnormal lesions

12

Presumptive Data

place the isolated microbe into a preliminary category

13

Confirmatory Data

pinpoint the microbe’s identity

14

Results are entered into ______

a summary patient chart

15

Tests involved when starting with patient analysis: (3)

(1) immunologic and serologic tests on blood; (2) in vivo tests for reaction to microbe; (3) clinical signs and symptoms

16

Direct Testing (Microscopic) (4)

(1) Gram-stain; (2) Acid-fast stain; (3) Fluorescent Ab stain; (4) Gene probes

17

Direct Testing (Macroscopic) (2)

(1) Direct Antigen; (2) Gene probes

18

Tests on Isolates (6)

(1) Biochemical; (2) Serotyping; (3) Antimicrobial Sensitivity; (4) Gene probes; (5) Phage testing; (6) Animal inoculation

19

Care should be taken to avoid contamination with ______ when taking samples from a patient. air water droplet nuclei normal microbiota None of the choices is correct.

Normal Microbiota

20

Stains most often used when diagnosing

Gram-stain and Acid-fast

21

Specialized Media

used to enrich a pathogen present in small numbers or is easily overgrown

22

Selective Media

to encourage the growth of only the suspected pathogen

23

Differential Media

used to identify definitive characteristics and fermentation patterns

24

pure cultures must be obtained from___________so that subsequent steps in identification will be accurate

isolation media

25

Physiological reactions of bacteria to nutrients and other substrates indicates what?

Enzymes are present in bacteria

26

Enzyme-mediated metabolic reactions often visualized by what?

a color change

27

Carbohydrate Fermentation shows...?

production of acid and/or gas

28

Enzyme actions (biochemical tests):

catalase, oxidase, and coagulase

29

Dichotomous keys

Flow charts based on easily recognizable characteristics (motility, gram-stain, morphology) that helps identify bacteria

30

Phage Typing

Test used when morphological and biochemical tests are insufficient; infects bacteria with bacteriophage to identify certain kinds