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When was the Middle Ages?



What was the center of life in the Middle Ages (literally and figuratively) ?

The church was the center of life- it was in the middle of the town and had a tight grip on the people


What caused the transition from the Antiquity era to the Middle Ages?

The Roman Empire was destroyed by illiterate barbarian tribes and the Roman provinces were replaced by small kingdoms


What are the 3 distinct periods of Europe from 500-present?

1. Antiquity- Classical period. Changes started by the fall of the Roman Empire.
2. Middle Ages- Medieval period, the Renaissance caused change.
3. Modern Period.


What are the Dark Ages?

A time in the Middle Ages where only the clergy were able to read. Since the clergy only read/write religious stuff, they essentially brainwashed the peasants


What survived the fall of the Roman Empire?

The Catholic Church survived the fall of the Roman Empire and became the center of life


What did the fall of the Roman Empire/ war change about society?

It changed what the peasants identified as (Catholic, no longer identifying as Roman, etc.)


How did the church have such great influence over the King + his people?

The clergy were the only literate ones and told the peasants that they couldn't be saved/baptized if the king wasn't baptized


What was the bad part of the Middle Ages?

The later Middle Ages (1300-1450)


Describe the later Middle Ages

It was a time of unrest and death


When did a major climate change/ little ice age take place?

During the later Middle Ages


How did the little ice age in the later Middle Ages effect society?

It had big effects on the agrarian society- it destroyed the population, the agricultural gains of the high Middle Ages, and it effected the attitude about the church


When was the Great Famine?

During the later Middle Ages, more specifically 1315-1322


What artworks were created during the Great Famine?

The Apocalypse in Biblia Pauperrum and 4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse


What were some causes of the Great Famine?

Disease, price inflation in 1315 due to the climate change (which caused the poor to get made), and terrible cold and wet weather


What were the effects of the famine?

Greater susceptibility, later marriage + less kids, a decrease in population, more homelessness, more unemployment and property loss, migration of young men to towns, and a greater increase in crime and violence.


What were some other effects of the famine?

It weakened the institutional authority of the Church, military campaigns were effected because troops couldn't be fed, the government response was ineffective because political authority was questioned, there was revolt against the wealthy, and there were entire villages that were abandoned


When did the Plague/ Black Death happen?

In the late Middle Ages, more specifically from 1346-1353


Where did the Black Death originate?

China/ Central Asia


How did the Plague spread so quickly?

It quickly spread throughout Europe because of the returning crusaders, shipping and trade, and poor hygiene + cramped living conditions (due to the migration from the famine.)


Who took care of the sick during the Bubonic Plague and what did they do?

Clergy and doctors (who actually didn't treat them, just comforted them and took count for demographic purposes.)


Once the bubonic plague was contracted, how long did it take for the victim to die?

Within 3 days of contracting it


How was the Bubonic Plague/ Black Death transmitted?

Fleas and rats. Horses carried fleas, and ships were full of rats.


What were the symptoms of the Plague?

Victims first developed a fever and began vomiting blood. Then, glands swell and the victims were in intense pain.


Why was the Bubonic Plague called the Black Death?

Because of the dark purple spots that appeared on the victims' skin


What were some effects of the plague?

It weakened the power of the church, trade declined, population declined, social and ethnic conflicts (Jews blamed for plague), and peasants revolted against wealthy nobles because they could afford to leave cities and left them behind.


Why were Jews blamed for the plague?

Because they lived outside the cities and didn't get sick


What were some positives to the plague?

Before the plague, Europe had experienced a massive population growth, but now it went down. Those who survived enjoyed plentiful jobs and higher pay due to a labor shortage. There ways a new approach to science since they thought that if religion didn't help, maybe science could.


When was the Hundred Years' War?

From 1337-1453. Actually lasted 116 years.


What were the 4 main causes of the Hundred Years' War?

Control over the succession to the French throne, French identity, land dispute, and wool trade + control of Flanders.