Flashcards in Chapter 11 Test Deck (96):
When was the Middle Ages?
What was the center of life in the Middle Ages (literally and figuratively) ?
The church was the center of life- it was in the middle of the town and had a tight grip on the people
What caused the transition from the Antiquity era to the Middle Ages?
The Roman Empire was destroyed by illiterate barbarian tribes and the Roman provinces were replaced by small kingdoms
What are the 3 distinct periods of Europe from 500-present?
1. Antiquity- Classical period. Changes started by the fall of the Roman Empire.
2. Middle Ages- Medieval period, the Renaissance caused change.
3. Modern Period.
What are the Dark Ages?
A time in the Middle Ages where only the clergy were able to read. Since the clergy only read/write religious stuff, they essentially brainwashed the peasants
What survived the fall of the Roman Empire?
The Catholic Church survived the fall of the Roman Empire and became the center of life
What did the fall of the Roman Empire/ war change about society?
It changed what the peasants identified as (Catholic, no longer identifying as Roman, etc.)
How did the church have such great influence over the King + his people?
The clergy were the only literate ones and told the peasants that they couldn't be saved/baptized if the king wasn't baptized
What was the bad part of the Middle Ages?
The later Middle Ages (1300-1450)
Describe the later Middle Ages
It was a time of unrest and death
When did a major climate change/ little ice age take place?
During the later Middle Ages
How did the little ice age in the later Middle Ages effect society?
It had big effects on the agrarian society- it destroyed the population, the agricultural gains of the high Middle Ages, and it effected the attitude about the church
When was the Great Famine?
During the later Middle Ages, more specifically 1315-1322
What artworks were created during the Great Famine?
The Apocalypse in Biblia Pauperrum and 4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse
What were some causes of the Great Famine?
Disease, price inflation in 1315 due to the climate change (which caused the poor to get made), and terrible cold and wet weather
What were the effects of the famine?
Greater susceptibility, later marriage + less kids, a decrease in population, more homelessness, more unemployment and property loss, migration of young men to towns, and a greater increase in crime and violence.
What were some other effects of the famine?
It weakened the institutional authority of the Church, military campaigns were effected because troops couldn't be fed, the government response was ineffective because political authority was questioned, there was revolt against the wealthy, and there were entire villages that were abandoned
When did the Plague/ Black Death happen?
In the late Middle Ages, more specifically from 1346-1353
Where did the Black Death originate?
China/ Central Asia
How did the Plague spread so quickly?
It quickly spread throughout Europe because of the returning crusaders, shipping and trade, and poor hygiene + cramped living conditions (due to the migration from the famine.)
Who took care of the sick during the Bubonic Plague and what did they do?
Clergy and doctors (who actually didn't treat them, just comforted them and took count for demographic purposes.)
Once the bubonic plague was contracted, how long did it take for the victim to die?
Within 3 days of contracting it
How was the Bubonic Plague/ Black Death transmitted?
Fleas and rats. Horses carried fleas, and ships were full of rats.
What were the symptoms of the Plague?
Victims first developed a fever and began vomiting blood. Then, glands swell and the victims were in intense pain.
Why was the Bubonic Plague called the Black Death?
Because of the dark purple spots that appeared on the victims' skin
What were some effects of the plague?
It weakened the power of the church, trade declined, population declined, social and ethnic conflicts (Jews blamed for plague), and peasants revolted against wealthy nobles because they could afford to leave cities and left them behind.
Why were Jews blamed for the plague?
Because they lived outside the cities and didn't get sick
What were some positives to the plague?
Before the plague, Europe had experienced a massive population growth, but now it went down. Those who survived enjoyed plentiful jobs and higher pay due to a labor shortage. There ways a new approach to science since they thought that if religion didn't help, maybe science could.
When was the Hundred Years' War?
From 1337-1453. Actually lasted 116 years.
What were the 4 main causes of the Hundred Years' War?
Control over the succession to the French throne, French identity, land dispute, and wool trade + control of Flanders.
What did the Hundred Years' War cause?
It caused the start of the change from Kingdoms to modern day countries.
What caused there to be controversy over the succession to the French throne?
Charles IV of France died without a heir, and French nobility picked Philip VI over Edward III of England. Philip proclaimed himself king of France.
What caused the land dispute between France and England?
England claimed Aquitaine and occupied it. Philip VI of France confiscates Aquitaine in 1337 and declares it French territory.
What caused there to be conflict over French identity?
France isn't united. French vassals (landholders) of Philip VI side with Edward III to assert independence from the French crown.
What caused the conflict over the wool trade and control of Flanders.
France controlled Flanders (modern day Netherlands) and the lucrative wool trade. However, Flanders wanted independence from French rule and asked England for help.
How did England claim early victories over the superior French force that the beginning of the Hundred Years' War?
England used guerrilla tactics and the French used open field fighting. They also used the longbow, which was very effective against the French, who were only prepared for hand to hand combat.
What was the first thing that helped France overcome the English advantage?
China gave them gunpowder and they used cannons n stuff
Who was Joan of Arc and what did she do?
She was a 12 year old French girl who claimed angels and saints told her she should help free France from English rule. She convinced French commanders to allow her to accompany the army to Orleans where the French were able to defeat the English.
When was Joan of Arc executed and for what crime?
She was executed in 1431 for heresy
How did Joan of Arc become imprisoned?
She was captured by French Burgundians who were allied with the English.
Why did people in the Middle Ages have such a deep faith in the church?
It provided comfort, safety, and reassurance in a chaotic time. Europeans in the Middle Ages were also intensely superstitious. The church had for centuries convinced people they needed salvation and to receive the sacraments in order to go to heaven.
What turned into a tax?
The church tithe turned into a forced tax.
What is an annate?
The first year's income of any clergy that goes directly to the pope
What is simony?
The selling/ bidding of church offices
Why did the church become corrupt?
The church was building a bureaucracy to collect revenues for the pope
How did the Europeans feel about the change in the role of the church (from religion to politics/government)?
They were confused and mad about the change in the role of the church.
What went on internally in the Church caused the its power to weaken?
The popes were corrupted by worldly power, they neglected their spiritual duties, and they were too active in political matters.
What does temporal authority mean?
What caused the temporal authority of the Church to weaken?
The growing influence of monarchs and national governments- Kings began wanting to tax the clergy and there were papal bulls against it.
What did the 2 Papal Bulls that caused conflict with Kings say?
Clerics Laicos in 1296- The clergy weren't to pay taxes to a lay ruler.
Unam Sanctum in 1302- The pope was the supreme authority (even over kings.)
Who was elected pope in 1305 and moved to Avignon, France?
Clement V moved to the south of France in 1305 after he was elected pope
What does the Babylonian Captivity refer to?
The Jewish exile in Babylon and the Pope's move to France
How many popes resided in Avignon and for how many years?
7 French popes resided in Avignon for 67 years
Why did people have such a big problem with the popes living in France?
They were under the influence of French kings (not the Italians.)
What do some people call the 7 popes that lived in France?
When did the papal residence move back to Rome and who moved it back?
In 1377 Gregory XI moved back to Rome
What was the reaction when Gregory XI moved the papal residence back to Rome?
He was greeted by Roman mobs, which forced the election of the Italian pope named Urban VI.
What did the French cardinals do after the election of Urban VI?
French cardinals escaped to Avignon and elect an alternative pope.
What is the first thing both the popes (the French and Italian ones) did when they were elected/ heard of the other's election?
They excommunicated each other.
What was the Great Schism?
The occurrence of 3 popes at once and the conflicts that went along with it
What happened after there were 2 popes?
The Council of Pisa demands that both popes resign and elects its own Pope, so now there are 3 popes.
How did they get back to only one pope from 3 popes?
The Council of Constance in 1414 gets rid of all 3 popes and elects Martin V.
What was the Conciliarism?
A reform movement within the church
Where does the Pope derive his power from?
The entire Christian community.
What major change happened during the Conciliarism?
A new constitutional structure was implemented that consisted of the Pope and a general council.
What did John Wyclif do/believe?
He urged that the church be stripped of its property and power. He believed that Christian beliefs and practices are in scripture, and scripture only, not with one man in Rome.
What were Wyclif's followers called? What happened to them?
Lollards- many were jailed and executed.
Who was Jan Hus?
He was a theologian and Lollard from the University of Prague that argued against the Church's power- was executed.
How far did Wyclif's ideas spread?
All the way to Prague (in the modern day Czech Republic.)
When was the Hussite Revolution?
From 1415 to 1436
What was the Hussite Revolution?
Followers of Jan Hus rose up to rebel + get rid of the power of the church- battled the combined armies of the pope and the Holy Roman Empire.
What was the
Hussite Revolution a precursor to?
It was a precursor to the Protestant Reformation in the early 16th century.
When was the English peasant revolt?
What were the causes of the revolt of English peasants in 1381?
Nobles tried to freeze wages (stature of Laborers,) urging by preachers- social equality.
What was the result of the revolt of English peasants?
They were wrekt by Richard II
When was the France-Jacquerie Revolt?
Who was the France-Jaquerie Revolt named after?
What were the causes of the France-Jaquerie Revolt?
Poor treatment and disrespect, high taxation.
What were the Peasant Revolts?
Revolts of peasants caused by non-religious things
What was the result of the France-Jaquerie Revolt?
The peasants were eventually crushed by the nobility
What was marriage like in the Middle Ages?
Often arranged, based on economics (not love), men were married in their mid 20's, women were married in their teens, there were no divorces (church rules) but there was annulment in very rare cases.
What was work like in the Middle Ages?
Rural = Farming.
Urban = Craft guilds (hard to enter, but more open after the plague.)
Women were deemed inferior so they had limited opportunities
What was religion like in the Middle Ages?
It was central to life, but the Church was slowly losing power.
What was recreation like in the Middle Ages?
The aristocracy competed in tournaments. The commoners competed in archery, wrestling, and alcohol. Both groups watched "blood sports" (executions.)
What is vernacular literature?
Works done in local language (not all in Latin.)
Why did the literacy rate increase at ~ the beginning of the 15th century?
The needs of commerce and government. There were less people alive to do those jobs, so others had to learn how to read in order to do them.
Who are some famous people in vernacular literature of the Middle Ages?
Dante, Chaucer, Villon, and Christine de Pisan.
What was the name of the pope that the French elected in opposition to urban vi?
Antipope Clement VII
What is a conciliarist?
Someone who believes that reform of the church could be best achieved through periodic assemblies/councils representing all the Christian people
What did Wyclif's beliefs allow?
Women to preach
What did Jan Hus believe?
That the pope has no authority and that the bible should be translated into the local Czech language.
What did Hus and his followers succeed in doing?
Creating a separate church- The Hussite Church in Bohemia, which survived and later on merged with other Protestant churches
What did the Council of Constance do?
It ended the Great Schism, got rid of the 3 popes, and elected a new one.
What is a confraternity?
A voluntary lay group organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood, or charitable activities. Each confraternity had its own job/specialty.
What does The imitation of Christ express?
The spirituality of the Brethren and Sisters of the Common Life