Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (145)
Why did Italy lose importance? What effect did this have?
Italy begin to lose trade and didn't have any exploration going on. This caused the power to shift from Southern Europe to Northern Europe.
Why did Spain's economy collapse? What effect did this have?
Because they brought too much silver in from the New World and inflated their economy. This caused the power to shift from Southern Europe to Northern Europe.
What were some of the reasons why the reputation of The Church began to erode?
Popes/ Clergy were gathering bastard children + sinning all the time and they began taking advantage of the people by selling indulgences to finance church projects.
What were indulgences?
A certificate that shortened the punishment for sin/ allowed people to be relieved from Purgatory and receive forgiveness.
Who was Martin Luther?
A Catholic monk who was a theologian at the University of Wittenberg (Germany) who was upset about corruption in the church (especially indulgences.)
What was Martin Luther particularly upset about?
Who sold indulgences around Wittenberg?
In 1517 Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, began selling indulgences around Wittenberg.
What did Tetzel use his profit from selling indulgences for?
Construction on St.Peter's Church
What happened to Tetzel?
He was banned from the territory by the Elector (prince) of Saxony.
Who was banned from the territory by the Elector (prince) of Saxony?
Johann Tetzel (the dude selling indulgences around Wittenberg.)
What troubled Luther?
The possibility of achieving salvation.
Who was troubled by the possibility of achieving salvation?
What passage did Luther find to defend his argument about salvation?
While reading St.Augustine, he found a passage from St.Paul that said, "The just shall live by faith."
What passage did Luther draw his conclusion about salvation from?
A book by St.Augustine containing a passage from St.Paul that said, "The just shall live by faith."
What was Luther's conclusion that he drew from St.Paul's passage?
That salvation could be achieved only through faith in the goodness and mercy of Christ. That performing good works, participating in ecclesiastical rituals, and receiving the sacraments wouldn't be enough.
When was a copy of The 95 Theses posted on a door of a church?
October 31, 1517
What happened on October 31st, 1517?
A copy of The 95 Theses posted on a door of a church.
What was The 95 Theses?
A list of complaints against the church
What was a list of complaints against the church?
The 95 Theses
What did Luther protest?
Church policies such as celibacy for the clergy, monasticism, and the authority of the Pope.
Who protested Church policies such as celibacy for the clergy, monasticism, and the authority of the Pope?
Who was Johannes Eck?
A noted theologian from Leipzig that challenged Martin Luther to a debate and got roasted
When did Luther debate Eck?
Who acknowledged that his views were similar to those of the condemned heretic Jan Hus?
Who did Martin Luther compare his views to?
Who issued the papal bull outlining the errors in the 95 Theses?
Pope Leo X
What was issued in 1520?
A papal bull outlining the errors in the 95 Theses
What outlined the errors in the 95 Theses?
The papal bull of 1520
Who threatened Luther with a document of excommunication and what did Luther do?
The Pope threatened Luther with a document of excommunication and Luther publicly burnt the document