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What led to the disasters of the Middle Ages?

Poor harvests and famines. Less calories meant people were more susceptible to disease and less energy for growing food. Diseases killed many people and animals. Economies slowed down and population growth halted. Weak governments couldn't deal with these problems, so starving people turned against the rich and Jews. English kings tried to regulate the food supply, but failed


When did the Black Death enter Europe?

1347 on ships from rats


What were the social and cultural consequences of the Black Death?

Priests, monks, and nuns cared for the sick, and as the clergy were killed off even women performed the services of priests.
In towns the plague meant population decline, which meant a huge labor shortage and high inflation.
Wages increased and so did labor productivity.
The demand for slaves increased.
The psychological impacts of the plague were huge- pessimism, gross sensuality, religious fervor, and flagellantism. Society became divided and full of fear, and creatives became obsessed with death.


What were the causes of the Hundred Years' War?

Edward III of England claimed the French crown. Many people supported him, but both countries used the war as an excuse to avoid domestic problems. It was a very glorified war and the battles took place in France.


What happened during the Hundred Years' War?

The longbow and the cannon helped the English. Joan of Arc helped France win the war by helping lift the English siege of Orleans. Joan was eventually turned over to the English and burned as a heretic in 1431.


What were the consequences of the Hundred Years' War?

-The war meant economic and population decline in both France and England. -Taxes on wool to finance the war in England meant a slowdown in the English wool trade.
-In England, the returning soldiers caused social problems.
-The war encourage the growth of parliamentary government, especially England.
-Encouraged nationalistic feelings in France and England.


What happened when there were two popes?

The Babylonian Captivity was a thing from 1309 to 1377 and then once Pope Gregory XI brought the papacy back to Rome the dude after him, Urban VI, alienated the church hierarchy. A new Pope, Clement VII, was elected, and both popes claimed to be legit.


What happened during the Great Schism? (1378-1417)

England and Germany recognized Urban VI, while France and others recognized the antipope, Clement VII. The schism brought the church into disrepute and wakened the religious faith of many.


What did conciliarists believe?

That church authority rested in the councils representing the people, not the authority of the pope.


What did John Wycliffe do?

He attacked papal authority and called for even more radical reform of the church. He believed that everyone should read the bible, which caused the first English translation of the Bible to be created. His followers were called Lollards


Who was John Hus?

One of John Wycliffe's followers/ lollards who spread his ideas to Bohemia.


What happened in the Renaissance?

Humanism and individualism were hallmarks. Art was a very important part of it, and wealthy people began spending their money on it.


What was the social change during the Renaissance?

Education and political thought changed.


What helped the revolution spread throughout Europe?

The invention of moveable type in 1455. Printing caused the spread of literacy and encouraged a wider common identity.


How did the status of women change during the Renaissance?

Most women married and were responsable for domestic affairs. They frequently worked outside the home in ship building, textiles, agriculture, etc. The status of upper-class women declined. Women were still expected to use their education only to run a household, not to do anything else.


What did slavery have to do with the Renaissance?

Enslavement of Slavic people in Eastern Europe was common and Germans and others commonly bought and sold Polish and Bohemian people. Starting in the 15th century, black slaves were brought into Europe in large numbers. The European attitude towards Africans was ambivalent. In the Renaissance, blacks were displayed as signs of wealth because they were "exotic."


What was the main differences between northern and southern art?

Northern art was more religious than Italy and less influenced by classical themes and motifs.


How did politics change during the Renaissance?

15th century rulers began the process of order through the centralization of power. The result was the rise of many powerful and ruthless rulers interested in the centralization of power and the elimination of disorder and violence.


Which rulers in the 15th century began to act according to Machiavelli's principles?

Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. These monarchs invested kingship with a strong sense of royal authority and national purpose.


What was France like after the Hundred Years' War?

Charles VII ushered in an age of recovery and ended civil war. He expelled the English, reorganized the royal council, strengthened royal finances, reformed the justice system and remodeled the army. He mad e the church subject to the state. Louis XI expanded the foundations of later French absolutism.


What was England like after the Hundred Years' War?

Feudal lords controlled the royal council and Parliament in the 15th century. England IV and his followers began to restore power and peace to the country. The Parliament had become a power center for the aristocracy but was manipulated by Henry VII into becoming a tool for the King. Henry VII and his successors won the support of the upper middle class supporting their interest in money, trade, and stability.


When was the Wars of Roses and what happened during it?

It took place from 1455-1471 and after the Hundred Years' War. The houses of York and Lancaster fought a civil war in England called the Wars of the Roses. It hurt trade, agriculture, and domestic industry.


What was going on in Spain in the 1400s + the 1500s with the reconquista?

The reconquista was a centuries long attempt to unite Spain and expel Muslims and Jews. The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella was the last major step in the unification and Christianization of Spain.


What damaged the Church's prestige in the 1400s-1517?

-The Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism.
-Secular humanists satirized and denounced moral corruption within the church.


What were some signs of disorder in the Church in the early 1500s?

Clerical immorality; the lack of education of the clergy and law standards of ordination; the absenteeism, pluralism (holding several offices), and wealth of the greater clergy.


What was Luther's 95 Theses?

Luther's opposition to indulgences led him to write the 95 Theses, which raised lots of debate in Europe. Luther was later excommunicated by Charles V at Worms in 1521.


What did Ulrich Zwingli do?

He introduced the reformation to Switzerland. He believed in the supremacy of Scripture, and was opposed to indulgences, the Mass, monasticism, and clerical celibacy.


What happened at the Confession of Augsburg?

The basic theological tenents of Protestantism were set forth in the Confession of Augsburg, in which Luther provided new answers to 4 basic theological issues: Where salvation comes from, where religious authority is, what the church consists of, and how people should serve god.


What were the social impacts of Luther's beliefs?

His ideas had a vast following among all social classes because of widespread resentment of clerical privileges and wealth. His ideas attracted many preachers, which became Protestant leaders. Peasants cited his theology as part of their demands for social and economic reforms.


What was Luther's greatest weapon? Who did he influence?

His mastery of the language, and his words were spread by the advent of printing. He influenced Zwingli and Calvin greatly.