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How did the rest of the world (excluding the Americas) feel about what Europe had to offer when they joined the global trade network?

They felt that Europeans had little to offer


What country funded explorations long before Europeans?



What networks were established before Europe got involved in trade?

Muslim and Asian empires had established trade networks as far away as Indonesia and Africa.


Who sailed for China before Europeans began exploring?

Zheng He had 7 voyages with over 300 ships (1405-1433)


Why did the Ming Dynasty abandon overseas exploration?

It was too expensive and they were pre-occupied with defense and isolation


Did Zheng He sail to North America?

According to most historians, no.


What were the motivations for European involvement in Asia?

Exotic spices (for food and religious ceremonies,) Chinese silk, Indian cotton, and precious gems


What sparked interest in exploration?

God, Gold, and Glory


What were the main goals in European exploration?

To spread Christianity, find new markets, European competition, global economic efforts, and necessity.


Why was exploration risky?

Because of the limited knowledge of the world and the confusion created by Ptolemy's Geography


What aided European exploration?

The technology gained from China and the Middle East


Why was Europe almost forced into exploration?

They really didn't have a choice because the Silk Road and Mediterranean trade were cut off.


What was some of the new technology that aided in European exploration?

The astrolabe, the magnetic compass, gunpowder, and triangular sails + round hulled ships


What was the astrolabe and where did it come from?

It was perfected by Muslim sailors and could plot latitude correctly


Who invented the magnetic compass?

The Chinese


What was one of the main things that helped make westward sailing possible?

Triangular sails and round hulled ships


Why were the Portuguese the first to sail west?

They had better ships, weapons, technology, and geography (since they were already on the Atlantic.)


What European country was the first to sail and why?

Portugal because they had better tools and technology


What did Prince Henry the Navigator do?

In 1420 he sailed for Portugal and discovered African gold


What did Bartholomew Dias do?

In 1488 he round a trip to Africa


What did Vasco de Gama do?

In 1498 he went around Africa and made it to India and back.


During the voyage to the Americas, what did Spain and Portugal do?

The Portuguese mostly sailed east to trade in the Indian Ocean and Spain went west


Where did Columbus think he landed? Where did he actually land?

Columbus thought he landed in Japan/ the West Indies but he actually landed in the Caribbean


What was the goal of Columbus's voyage?

To find a shortcut to China


What country did Columbus sail for and why?

He sailed for Spain because _____


What was the Treaty of Tordesillas?

In 1494, Pope Alexander VI mediated a dispute between Spain and Portugal over newly explored territory.


What did the Treaty of Tordesillas do?

It agreed that Spain got land west of the line and that Portugal got everything east of the line. It also said that no one gets land already under control of a Christian leader.


What did Spain do after the Treaty of Tordesillas?

It followed Portugal's lead into the Indian Ocean trade and established a colony on the Philippine Islands under King Philip II


Why did Spain set up colonial rule in the Philippine Islands?

It was close to China and the spice islands and there wasn't any significant competition


What did the Treaty of Zaragoza of 1529 do?

It established an end line for the Treaty of Tordesillas