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Flashcards in Chapter 9 key terms Deck (13)
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Exclusive organizations that monopolized the skilled trades in Europe from the medieval period until broken by the development of cottage industries in the 18th century.



In the Renaissance, both a belief in the value of human achievement and an educational program based on classical Greek and Roman languages and values.


Studia humanitas

The educational program of the Renaissance, founded on knowledge of the classical Greek and Latin languages.


Oration on the Dignity of Man

One of the best articulations (1486) of the belief in the dignity and potential of humans that characterized Renaissance humanism, authored by Giovanni Pico dell Mirandola.


The Prince

The book by Nicollo Machiavelli (1513), which marks the shift from a "civic ideal" to a "princely ideal" in Renaissance humanism. The princely ideal is focused on the qualities and strategies necessary for attaining and holding social and political power.



In the Renaissance and Early Modern period, a philosophy based on that of Plato, which contended that reality was located in a changeless world of forms and which, accordingly, spurred the study of mathematics.


Florentine Academy

An informal gathering of humanists devoted to the revival of the teachings of Plato, founded in 1462 under the leadership of Marsillo Ficino and the patronage of Cosimo de Medici.



Paintings done either on wet or dry plaster; an important medium of art during the Renaissance.


Michelangelo's "David."

Sculpted by Michelangelo Buonarroti (1504), this sculpture of the biblical hero is characteristic of the last and most heroic phase of Renaissance art.


What was the effect produced by Michelangelo's "David"?

Scripted from a single piece of marble, it's larger than life and offers a vision of the human body and spirit that is more dramatic than real life, an effect that Michelangelo produced by making the head and hands deliberately too large for the torso.


Treaty of Lodi

The treaty (1454-1455) that established an internal balance of power by bringing Milan, Naples, and Florence into an alliance to check the power of Venice and its frequent ally, the Papal States. The balance of power was shattered in 1494, when Naples, supported by both Florence and the pope, prepared to attack Milan.



Dialogues written (beginning in 1519) by the most important and influential of the northern humanists, Desiderius Erasmus, for the purpose of teaching his students both the Latin language and how to live a good life.


Lay piety

A tradition in the smaller, independent German provinces, flourishing in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, whereby organized groups promoted pious behavior and learning outside the bureaucracy of the church.