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1

Why was the 17th Century called the Age of Crisis?

There were bitter religious conflicts; high inflation and high tax rates; and bad harvests, starvation, and population loss.

2

What did the crises during the 17th century lead to?

Changes in European government that lead to all governments in Europe either being Absolutist or Constitutional.

3

Why did countries develop different forms of government during the 17th century?

Because of the crises and differences in religion (Catholic vs Protestant)

4

Where could absolutist governments be found?

France and Spain

5

What was absolutism?

There was the dissolution of feudalism and rise of centralized and total power was given to the King/Queen.

6

What was an influential work in Absolutism?

Thomas Hobbes "Leviathan"

7

What was constitutionalism?

The monarch shared power and was constrained by a constitution

8

Where could constitutionalist governments be found?

England and the Netherlands

9

What was an influential work in Constitutionalism?

"The Magna Carta" 1215

10

What changed when countries became Absolutist?

The Monarchs raised taxes, built up professional armies, and secured the loyalty of the nobility (who only answered to God). They also consolidated and centralized their power.

11

What led to the evolution of Constitutionalism?

The Reformation and decline of Church power

12

What was the most destructive war in European history?

The 30 years' war

13

What percentage of the German population was killed during the 30 Years' War?

30%

14

What percentage of German men were killed during the 30 Years' War?

50%

15

What caused the 30 Years' War?

The Peace of Augsburg began to unravel and Catholics and Protestants went to war again.

16

What were the 4 phases of the 30 Years' War?

Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, and French

17

What caused the German Civil War (phase 1 of the 30 Years' War)?

Protestants accused Catholic leaders of halting construction of Protestant churches. After a meeting, they were defenestration (thrown from a window.)

18

What did the Catholic leaders begin to do after the defenestration of Prague?

They began to take revenge on Protestants, which caused a civil war to break out in Bohemia.

19

Where was Bohemia?

Germany and the Chez Republic.

20

What did the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 do?

It caused the European wars of religion to die, for German states to be recognized as independent, different faiths to be legally recognized, and for the HRE to dissolve.

21

What happened to religion in Germany after the German states became independent?

The North became Protestant and the South became Catholic.

22

What nation was the most powerful in Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648?

France stepped up as the most powerful nation in Europe.

23

Who caused the silver inflation of Spain and why?

King Philip II of Spain was obsessed with religious conversions and colonialism exploration, so he got too much silver.

24

What caused the Spanish Economic Collapse?

The Silver Inflation and the 30 Years' War

25

Who are the 3 major absolutist rulers?

Philip II, Louis the 14th, and Philip the Great

26

Who failed the Spanish Armada invasion of England?

King Philip II of Spain (1556-1598)

27

Who started the Bourbon dynasty in France?

Henry of Navarre who was forced to wait outside during his wedding in Paris and survived St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

28

Who converted to Catholicism in order to save France?

King Henry IV

29

Why did King Henry IV convert to Catholicism when he became King?

Because, "Paris is worth a mass."

30

What was the Edict of Nantes?

The edict that declared religious toleration declared by King Henry IV