Chapter 13 Flashcards Preview

Brain and Behavior > Chapter 13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (178):
1

In Pavlov's experiments he presented a sound followed by meat. Gradually the sound came to elicit salivation. The sound in this experiment would be considered the:
a. unconditioned stimulus.
b. unconditioned response.
c. conditioned stimulus.
d. conditioned response.

c. conditioned stimulus.

2

In Pavlov's experiments, he presented a sound followed by meat. Gradually the sound came to elicit salivation. The meat in this experiment was the:
a. unconditioned stimulus.
b. unconditioned response.
c. conditioned stimulus.
d. conditioned response.

a. unconditioned stimulus.

3

In Pavlov's experiments, he presented a sound followed by meat. Gradually the sound came to elicit salivation. The salivation to the meat in this experiment was the:
a. unconditioned stimulus.
b. unconditioned response.
c. conditioned stimulus.
d. conditioned response.

b. unconditioned response.

4

In Pavlov's experiments, he presented a sound followed by meat. Gradually the sound came to elicit salivation. The salivation to the sound in this experiment was the:
a. unconditioned stimulus.
b. unconditioned response.
c. conditioned stimulus.
d. conditioned response.

d. conditioned response.

5

What should be the usual relationship between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning?
a. The conditioned stimulus should be presented first.
b. The unconditioned stimulus should be presented first.
c. They should be presented simultaneously.
d. It depends on what each stimulus is.

a. The conditioned stimulus should be presented first.

6

In operant conditioning, reinforcement is:
a. any food that the organism likes.
b. a stimulus that produces a reflexive response.
c. an event that decreases the future probability of a response.
d. an event that increases the future probability of a response.

d. an event that increases the future probability of a response.

7

Giving a dolphin a treat when it does a summersault would be considered a(n):
a. reinforcement.
b. punishment.
c. unconditioned response.
d. conditioned response.

a. reinforcement.

8

In operant conditioning, punishment is:
a. a stimulus that produces a reflexive response.
b. an event that decreases the future probability of a response.
c. an event that increases the future probability of a response.
d. an event that prevents a response.

b. an event that decreases the future probability of a response.

9

Which of the following is hardest to classify as classical or operant conditioning?
a. pressing a lever to get food
b. pressing a lever to escape shock
c. salivating after a sound previously paired with food
d. song learning by male birds

d. song learning by male birds

10

Operant conditioning is to ____ as classical conditioning is to ____.
a. reinforcement; punishment
b. CS; UCS
c. association; consequences
d. consequences; association

d. consequences; association

11

Pavlov believed that classical conditioning reflected a strengthened connection between two brain areas that were activated by:
a. reinforcement and punishment.
b. the response and a consequence.
c. the UCS and UCR.
d. the CS and UCS.

d. the CS and UCS.

12

In his search for the engram, Lashley was testing:
a. Pavlov's view of classical conditioning.
b. Skinner's view of operant conditioning.
c. Garcia's view of taste aversion learning.
d. Bandura's view of social learning.

a. Pavlov's view of classical conditioning.

13

Lashley's term "engram" refers to:
a. a drug that facilitates learning.
b. the physical representation of learning.
c. a procedure that improved memory.
d. an automatic response to a sensory stimulus.

a. a drug that facilitates learning.

14

Karl Lashley called the physical basis of learning a(n):
a. amyloid.
b. engram.
c. plaque.
d. synapse.

b. engram.

15

Lashley trained rats on a variety of mazes, then made deep cuts in their cortexes. He found that the cuts produced:
a. a temporary impairment.
b. a permanent impairment.
c. day-to-day fluctuations in performance.
d. little apparent effect.

d. little apparent effect.

16

Lashley found that a deep cut in a rat's cerebral cortex completely eliminated the effects of learning under what circumstances, if any?
a. if the cut was made after the learning
b. if the learned task was simple
c. if the learned task was complex
d. under none of the circumstances he studied

d. under none of the circumstances he studied

17

Lashley found that when he removed parts of the brain:
a. only the removal of frontal lobe tissue disrupted performance.
b. only the removal of parietal lobe tissue disrupted performance.
c. the amount of tissue removed was more important than its location.
d. he found no loss of memories at all.

d. he found no loss of memories at all.

18

"All parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex behaviors such as learning" defines:
a. operant conditioning.
b. classical conditioning.
c. equipotentiality.
d. mass action.

c. equipotentiality.

19

The cortex works as a whole, and the more cortex the better, defines:
a. operant conditioning.
b. classical conditioning.
c. equipotentiality.
d. mass action.

d. mass action.

20

Recent researchers have felt that Lashley's conclusions about the results of his search for the engram reflected some inappropriate assumptions. One of those assumptions was that:
A memory involves a physical change in the nervous system.
B all kinds of memory are physiologically the same.
C more than one kind of memory exists.
D different memories change different sets of neurons.

B all kinds of memory are physiologically the same.

21

Recent researchers have felt that Lashley's conclusions about the results of his search for the engram reflected some inappropriate assumptions. One of those assumptions was that:
a. memory involves a physical change in the nervous system.
b. that all kinds of memory are physiologically the same.
c. more than one kind of memory exists.
d. different memories involve different sets of neurons.

b. that all kinds of memory are physiologically the same.

22

Which of the following is one of the reasons that Lashley failed at finding the engram?
a. He used poor surgical methods.
b. Some memories do not depend on the cortex.
c. The engram is continually changing location in the cortex.
d. Classical conditioning had not been discovered yet.

b. Some memories do not depend on the cortex.

23

Which of the following is one of the reasons that Lashley failed at finding the engram?
a. He used poor surgical methods.
b. Not all memories are physiologically the same.
c. The engram is continually changing location in the cortex.
d. Classical conditioning had not been discovered yet.

b. Not all memories are physiologically the same.

24

Lashley's conclusions from his engram research were based on certain unnecessary assumptions, which later psychologists have discarded. One of those assumptions was that the:
A cerebral cortex is the best or only place to search for an engram.
B left hemisphere of the brain is simply the mirror image of the right hemisphere.
C physiological mechanisms of learning in rats are similar to those in humans.
D hippocampus is more important for storage than it is for retrieval.

A cerebral cortex is the best or only place to search for an engram

25

Lashley's conclusions from his engram research were based on certain unnecessary assumptions, which later psychologists have discarded. One of those assumptions was that the:
a. brain treats all kinds of memory the same way.
b. left hemisphere of the brain is simply the mirror image of the right hemisphere.
c. physiological mechanisms of learning in rats are similar to those in humans.
d. hippocampus is more important for storage than it is for retrieval.

a. brain treats all kinds of memory the same way.

26

In studies that paired a tone with an air puff to the cornea of rabbits, learning was found to depend on one nucleus of the:
a. cerebellum.
b. hypothalamus.
c. thalamus.
d. hippocampus.

a. cerebellum.

27

In studies of eyelid conditioning in rabbits, Thompson and his colleagues have demonstrated that learning for this conditioned response takes place in the:
a. red nucleus of the midbrain.
b. temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex.
c. lateral interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum.
d. ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

c. lateral interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum.

28

While studying classical conditioning of the eyelid response in rabbits, investigators suppress the activity of the red nucleus. What results will occur?
A That procedure will not interfere with learning.
B Learning will not occur.
C The response will not occur, but later testing will reveal that learning occurred.
D The rabbit will show immediate evidence of learning, but it will forget rapidly.

B Learning will not occur.

29

Research indicates that the red nucleus is necessary for:
a. the learning of a conditioned response.
b. the performance of a conditioned response.
c. the learning AND performance of a conditioned response.
d. suppression of the conditioned response.

b. the performance of a conditioned response.

30

Preventing learning is to ____ as suppressing a response is to ____.
a. classical conditioning; operant conditioning
b. operant conditioning; classical conditioning
c. the red nucleus; the lateral interpositus nucleus
d. the lateral interpositus nucleus; the red nucleus

d. the lateral interpositus nucleus; the red nucleus

31

Thompson identified one nucleus of the cerebellum, the ____, as essential for learning.
a. anterior nucleus
b. fastigial nucleus
c. red nucleus
d. lateral interpositus nucleus

d. lateral interpositus nucleus

32

If the lateral interpositus nucleus is temporarily suppressed during classical conditioning of the eyeblink response, what happens?
A After the nucleus recovers, the animal remembers the training fully.
B Future conditioning occurs as if the animal had no previous training.
C After the nucleus recovers, the animal learns more slowly than usual.
D Future conditioning occurs rapidly, but the animal also forgets rapidly.

B Future conditioning occurs as if the animal had no previous training.

33

The cerebellum's role in memories may be limited to what kind of learning or memory?
a. language learning
b. imprinting
c. classical conditioning
d. operant conditioning

c. classical conditioning

34

A person with damage to their cerebellum may experience several problems, including:
a. poor eyesight.
b. inability to be classically conditioned.
c. weakened conditioned eye blinks.
d. exaggerated eye blinking.

c. weakened conditioned eye blinks.

35

Donald Hebb (1949) distinguished between two types of memory that he called
A implicit and explicit.
B declarative and procedural.
C short-term and long-term.
D repressed and unrepressed.

C short-term and long-term.

36

Short-term memory may be characterized as:
a. having a limited capacity.
b. having an unlimited capacity.
c. elaborative in nature.
d. rehearsal free.

a. having a limited capacity.

37

Hebb believed that short-term memory:
a. should not be distinguished from long-term memory.
b. was a temporary holding station on the way to long-term memory.
c. was more important than long-term memory.
d. was low-level memory.

b. was a temporary holding station on the way to long-term memory.

38

Donald Hebb distinguished between two kinds of memory because he could not imagine how a single kind of brain change could be both:
A axonal and synaptic.
B cognitive and muscular.
C positive and negative.
D quick and permanent.

D quick and permanent.

39

Researchers proposed that all information initially entered a short-term storage, where it stayed until the brain had time to ____ it into long-term memory.
a. transpose
b. rehearse
c. consolidate
d. transfer

c. consolidate

40

The general function of working memory is to:
a. hold information until it has time to get to long-term storage.
b. store memories of life events permanently.
c. attend to and operate on current information.
d. store information related to repetitious motor movements.

c. attend to and operate on current information.

41

According to Baddeley and Hitch, a common test of working memory is the:
a. delayed response task
b. reconsolidation task
c. consolidation task
d. working memory task

a. delayed response task

42

The delayed response task requires responding to something that you saw or heard ____.
a. in the distant past
b. a short while ago
c. right at that time
d. in a meaningful way

b. a short while ago

43

Which brain area is active in monkeys during a delay when they have to remember the location of a light and look there only after a several-second delay?
a. cerebellum
b. the prefrontal cortex
c. the occipital lobes
d. ventromedial hypothalamus

b. the prefrontal cortex

44

Compared to young adults, aging humans with poor working memory have ____ activity in the prefrontal cortex and aging humans with intact working memory have ____ activity in the prefrontal cortex.
a. decreased, decreased
b. increased, increased
c. increased, decreased
d. decreased, increased

d. decreased, increased

45

Which of the following drug types is most promising for treating people with failing memory?
a. Tranquilizers
b. Endorphins
c. Depressants
d. Stimulants

d. Stimulants

46

Studies on ____ help clarify the distinctions among different kinds of memory and enable us to explore the mechanisms of memory.
a. dementia
b. amnesia
c. epilepsy
d. stroke

b. amnesia

47

One would most accurately describe H.M.'s memory problems as the inability to form:
A short-term memories.
B new implicit memories.
C new episodic memories.
D new procedural memories.

C new episodic memories.

48

The patient H.M. suffered severe memory disorders following a surgical operation that removed the:
a. corpus callosum.
b. hippocampus.
c. lateral interpositus nucleus and hypothalamus.
d. prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial thalamus.

b. hippocampus.

49

Anterograde amnesia is to ____ as retrograde amnesia is to ____.
a. storing new memories; memories of the past
b. memories just prior to the damage; memories from childhood
c. short-term memory; long-term memory
d. emotional memories; non-emotional memories

a. storing new memories; memories of the past

50

Retrograde amnesia is to ____ as anterograde amnesia is to ____.
a. temporary loss of memory; permanent loss of memory
b. loss of short-term memory; loss of long-term memory
c. inability to form new memories; loss of memory for old events
d. loss of memory for old events; inability to form new memories

d. loss of memory for old events; inability to form new memories

51

The inability to form memories for events that happened after brain damage is a characteristic of ____ amnesia.
a. retrograde
b. anterograde
c. proactive
d. procedural

b. anterograde

52

Forgetting events prior to the time of brain damage is a characteristic of ____ amnesia.
a. retrograde
b. anterograde
c. proactive
d. procedural

a. retrograde

53

The patient H.M., who had major surgery for severe epilepsy in 1953, suffered a severe difficulty in remembering events:
a. in working memory.
b. during or after 1953.
c. long before 1953.
d. of his childhood.

b. during or after 1953.

54

After his surgery, H.M. had the most difficulty with:
a. learning new procedural tasks.
b. remembering events long before the surgery.
c. being able to define new English words.
d. IQ tests.

c. being able to define new English words.

55

H.M. was able to learn and remember:
a. people's names.
b. how to find his way to a new residence.
c. skills like mazes and puzzles.
d. events in recent history.

c. skills like mazes and puzzles.

56

A peculiarity of the memory of the neurological patient H.M. was that he was able to:
a. retain new skills but not remember having learned them.
b. form new long-term memories but not short-term memories.
c. find his way to a new residence.
d. remember people's names but not which name went with which person.

a. retain new skills but not remember having learned them.

57

Deliberate recall of information that one recognizes as a memory is termed:
a. priming.
b. explicit memory.
c. procedural memory.
d. declarative memory.

b. explicit memory.

58

____ is an influence of recent experience on behavior, even if one does not recognize that influence.
a. Priming.
b. Explicit memory.
c. Procedural memory.
d. Implicit memory

d. Implicit memory

59

Individuals with amnesia who play video games such as Tetris:
a. remember playing the game, but do not improve performance.
b. don't remember playing the game, but improve their performance.
c. never get any better.
d. are more likely to do better on spatial rotation tasks.

b. don't remember playing the game, but improve their performance.

60

The memory for the development of motor skills is termed:
a. priming.
b. explicit memory.
c. procedural memory.
d. declarative memory.

c. procedural memory.

61

The ability to state a memory in words is termed:
a. procedural memory.
b. declarative memory.
c. implicit memory.
d. short term memory.

b. declarative memory.

62

Which of these types of memory is MOST impaired by damage to the hippocampus?
A short-term memory
B implicit memory
C episodic memory
D procedural memory

C episodic memory

63

Which of the following accurately describes H.M.'s memory problems?
a. impaired short-term memory, but not long-term memory
b. impaired procedural memory, but not declarative memory
c. impaired explicit memory, but not implicit memory
d. impaired personal memories, but not impersonal memories

c. impaired explicit memory, but not implicit memory

64

One ironic but interesting finding is that people with amnesia will improve on ____ tasks, but have no ____ memory with respect to the task.
a. procedural; explicit
b. explicit; procedural
c. declarative; implicit
d. implicit; procedural

a. procedural; explicit

65

Procedural memory is to ____ as declarative memory is to ____.
a. jogging; walking
b. reading; writing
c. carrying on a conversation; listening to the radio
d. juggling; explaining the sequence of moves in juggling

d. juggling; explaining the sequence of moves in juggling

66

The delayed matching-to-sample task is considered to be an example of:
a. declarative memory.
b. procedural memory.
c. the Morris search task.
d. Korsakoff's syndrome.

a. declarative memory.

67

Damage to the ____ impairs performance on the delayed matching-to-sample and delayed nonmatching-to-sample tasks.
a. hypothalamus
b. thalamus
c. hippocampus
d. parietal cortex

c. hippocampus

68

Hippocampal damage has the greatest effect on:
a. the delayed match-to-sample task when the same two objects are used over and over again.
b. the delayed match-to-sample task when the two objects are continuously changed.
c. the delayed nonmatch-to-sample task when the same two objects are used over and over again.
d. procedural memory.

b. the delayed match-to-sample task when the two objects are continuously changed.

69

If a researcher makes minor changes to the procedure of the delayed matching-to-sample and delayed nonmatching-to-sample tasks, monkeys with hippocampal damage:
a. perform well, regardless of the procedure.
b. perform poorly, regardless of the procedure.
c. perform differently, depending on the procedure.
d. improve temporarily, regardless of procedure, and then return to their normal level of performance.

c. perform differently, depending on the procedure.

70

What area of the brain is particularly important for coding spatial information?
a. hippocampus
b. hypothalamus
c. pons
d. reticular formation

a. hippocampus

71

A study with London taxi drivers found that answering ____ activated their hippocampus more than answering ____.
a. nonspatial questions; spatial questions
b. spatial questions; nonspatial questions
c. long questions; short questions
d. short questions; long questions

b. spatial questions; nonspatial questions

72

A rat is placed in a radial maze in which it has already been trained for many trials. As compared to rats without damage to their hippocampus, rats with damage are more likely to:
a. enter an alley at random.
b. fail to eat the food they find.
c. enter one of the correct alleys repeatedly.
d. enter an alley that is never correct.

c. enter one of the correct alleys repeatedly.

73

A ____ has eight or more arms, some of which have a bit of food or other reinforcer at the end.
a. radial maze
b. Morris maze
c. Thompson maze
d. spatial maze

a. radial maze

74

A rat must swim through murky water to find a rest platform that is just under the surface in the:
a. radial maze.
b. Morris search task.
c. configurable learning task.
d. delayed matching-to-sample task.

b. Morris search task.

75

In the Morris search task, a rat with hippocampal damage will:
a. not be able to find the platform.
b. easily be able to find the platform regardless of where it is.
c. gradually learn the route if the starting and ending point are the same.
d. find the platform, but never remember where it was.

c. gradually learn the route if the starting and ending point are the same.

76

A rat with hippocampal damage has difficulty with the Morris search task because it:
a. loses its motivation to find the platform.
b. cannot remember how to swim.
c. has difficulty remembering where the platform is from trial to trial.

c. has difficulty remembering where the platform is from trial to trial.

77

Which of the following experiments would be a reasonable test of whether an animal has suffered damage to its hippocampus?
a. Does it reenter a single arm before entering all the other appropriate arms in a radial maze?
b. Does it sometimes enter an arm in a radial maze that is never correct?
c. Can it learn to climb along a thin wire without losing its balance?
d. Can it learn to turn one direction when it hears a loud tone and a different direction when it hears a soft tone?

a. Does it reenter a single arm before entering all the other appropriate arms in a radial maze?

78

There is compelling evidence for the role of the hippocampus in ____ memory.
a. short term
b. implicit
c. spatial
d. auditory

c. spatial

79

A number of species of birds differ in the size of their hippocampus. The species with the largest hippocampus performs best on tasks of:
a. spatial memory.
b. color memory.
c. auditory memory.
d. implicit memory.

a. spatial memory.

80

Researchers have found that different species of birds differ in terms of how much they depend on food they have stored to get through the winter. What factor is related to depending on and finding stored food?
a. overall brain size
b. relative size of the cortex
c. relative size of the amygdala
d. relative size of the hippocampus

d. relative size of the hippocampus

81

The hippocampus is especially important for which kind of memory?
A procedural
B episodic
C short-term
D implicit

B episodic

82

The hippocampus is more important for remembering the ____ of memory and less necessary for remembering the ____.
A gist; contextual details
B contextual details; gist
C visual aspects; auditory aspects
D auditory aspects; visual aspects

B contextual details; gist

83

As time passes, memory becomes less detailed, less dependent on the hippocampus, and more dependent on the:
a. basal ganglia
b. Amygdala
c. cerebral cortex
d. Thalamus

c. cerebral cortex

84

What type of deficiency causes Korsakoff's syndrome?
a. Thiamine
b. Protein
c. Sodium
d. Calcium

a. Thiamine

85

Who is most likely to develop Korsakoff's syndrome?
a. those exposed to chronic stress
b. chronic alcoholics
c. certain ethnic groups
d. vegetarians

b. chronic alcoholics

86

Most Korsakoff's victims have a loss or shrinkage of neurons throughout the brain, especially in the:
a. cingulate gyrus.
b. occipital lobe.
c. dorsomedial thalamus.
d. cerebellum.

c. dorsomedial thalamus.

87

Most Korsakoff's victims have a loss or shrinkage of neurons throughout the brain, especially in the:
a. cingulate gyrus.
b. occipital lobe.
c. dorsomedial thalamus.
d. cerebellum.

c. dorsomedial thalamus.

88

What type of deficiency causes Korsakoff's syndrome?
a. Thiamine
b. Protein
c. Sodium
d. Calcium

a. Thiamine

89

Korsakoff's syndrome is a disorder most often associated with damage to the:
a. dorsomedial thalamus and mamillary bodies.
b. anterior thalamus and fornix.
c. dorsomedial thalamus and hippocampus
d. anterior thalamus and mamillary bodies.

a. dorsomedial thalamus and mamillary bodies.

90

A disorder most often associated with damage to the dorsomedial thalamus and mamillary bodies is:
a. Alzheimer's disease.
b. Korsakoff's syndrome.
c. phenylketonuria.
d. Down syndrome.

b. Korsakoff's syndrome.

91

A distinctive symptom of Korsakoff’s syndrome is:
a. tremors.
b. dementia.
c. memory loss.
d. confabulation.

d. confabulation.

92

Damage to the ____ produces symptoms similar to Korsakoff's syndrome.
a. prefrontal cortex
b. basal ganglia
c. occipital cortex
d. precentral gyrus

a. prefrontal cortex

93

What memory impairments are found in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome?
a. only anterograde amnesia
b. only retrograde amnesia
c. anterograde and retrograde amnesia
d. neither anterograde nor retrograde amnesia

c. anterograde and retrograde amnesia

94

Individuals with Korsakoff's syndrome are similar to people with damage to the:
a. amygdala.
b. prefrontal cortex.
c. hippocampus.
d. hypothalamus.

b. prefrontal cortex.

95

People with Korsakoff's syndrome show:
a. better implicit than explicit memory.
b. better explicit than implicit memory.
c. better declarative than procedural memory.
d. memory for the order of events, but not memory for colors of common objects.

a. better implicit than explicit memory.

96

When prompted with cues, Korsakoff's victims can often produce words from lists they saw but claim to have never seen. This exemplifies what kind of memory?
a. reference
b. procedural
c. implicit
d. explicit

c. implicit

97

When Korsakoff's syndrome patients read over a list of words, what evidence of memory, if any, do they demonstrate?
a. None at all.
b. They remember the first word and the last word only.
c. They remember reading a list, although they cannot remember any of the words.
d. They say many of the correct words if they are given the first three letters.

d. They say many of the correct words if they are given the first three letters.

98

What memory task would a typical patient with Korsakoff's syndrome be able to do without difficulty?
a. recall the temporal order of events
b. remember someone he or she met in the past week
c. an implicit memory task
d. an explicit memory task

c. an implicit memory task

99

Confusing a made-up answer as a memory of an actual experience is referred to as:
a. procedural memory.
b. declarative memory.
c. configuration.
d. confabulation.

d. confabulation.

100

What is confabulation?
a. confusing a made-up answer as a memory of an actual experience
b. having the two sides of the body working antagonistically
c. confusing procedural memory for declarative memory
d. remembering names, but being unable to put them with a face

a. confusing a made-up answer as a memory of an actual experience

101

Korsakoff's patients best remember a list of short sentences by:
a. reading and rereading them.
b. testing themselves on each sentence before going on to the next.
c. creating an elaborate story integrating the content of the sentences.
d. relating each sentence to a past personal experience.

a. reading and rereading them.

102

As with Korsakoff's patients, Alzheimer's patients have impairments in ____ memory, but are relatively unimpaired in ____ memory.
a. short-term; long-term
b. implicit; explicit
c. procedural; declarative
d. declarative; procedural

d. declarative; procedural

103

Alzheimer's patients are relatively unimpaired in:
a. declarative memory.
b. procedural memory.
c. short-term memory.
d. implicit and explicit memory.

b. procedural memory.

104

Someone with a mild to moderate case of Alzheimer's disease would be most likely to remember which of the following?
a. how to drive a car
b. what make of car he or she drives
c. where he or she parked the car
d. the time he or she most recently drove a car

a. how to drive a car

105

Korsakoff's patients and Alzheimer's patients are most successful at learning and remembering:
a. facts.
b. skills.
c. names of people.
d. words.

b. skills.

106

Korsakoff's patients and Alzheimer's patients have better memory for:
a. recent events than events of the remote past.
b. what is happening at a given moment than general principles.
c. skills than facts.
d. verbal information than visual information.

c. skills than facts.

107

Restlessness, depression, hallucinations and loss of appetite all accompany:
a. Korsakoff's syndrome.
b. Alzheimer's disease.
c. confabulation.
d. Aplysia.

b. Alzheimer's disease.

108

If people with Down syndrome live long enough, they almost invariably develop:
a. Korsakoff's syndrome.
b. Parkinson's disease.
c. Huntington's disease.
d. Alzheimer's disease.

d. Alzheimer's disease.

109

Researchers begin to look for clues to the genetics of Alzheimer's by investigating the chromosome related to:
a. Korsakoff's disease.
b. Down syndrome.
c. epilepsy.
d. alcoholism.

b. Down syndrome.

110

In some cases of Alzheimer's disease that run in families, the cause of the disease appears to involve which gene(s)?
a. a gene on the X chromosome
b. a gene on the Y chromosome
c. a series of genes on chromosome 4
d. genes on several different chromosomes

d. genes on several different chromosomes

111

Alzheimer's leads to the accumulation of ____ in the brain.
a. glucose
b. amyloid deposits
c. arachidonic acid
d. serotonin

b. amyloid deposits

112

The genes related to Alzheimer's lead to the accumulation, in the brain, of:
a. glucose.
b. amyloid deposits.
c. arachidonic acid.
d. serotonin.

b. amyloid deposits.

113

Structures formed from degenerating axons and dendrites are referred to as:
a. tau proteins.
b. amyloid beta proteins.
c. confabulations.
d. plaques.

d. plaques.

114

The most likely cause of the brain damage typical of Alzheimer's disease is due to a:
a. deficit of thiamine.
b. excess of neurotrophins.
c. increase in amyloid-β proteins.
d. excess of acetylcholine.

c. increase in amyloid-β proteins.

115

Alzheimer's is associated with brain damage as a result of:
a. loss of the fibers connecting the substantia nigra to the basal ganglia.
b. loss of cell bodies in the dorsomedial thalamus.
c. tangles and plaques in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.
d. an epileptic focus in the temporal lobe of the cortex.

c. tangles and plaques in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

116

Plaques and tangles in the cerebral cortex are characteristic of people with:
a. retrograde amnesia.
b. anterograde amnesia.
c. Korsakoff's syndrome.
d. Alzheimer's disease.

d. Alzheimer's disease.

117

What is believed to be the likely cause of plaques?
a. a relative deficit of thiamine
b. increased pressure from cerebrospinal fluid
c. amyloid deposits in the brain
d. a relative deficit of acetylcholine

c. amyloid deposits in the brain

118

Most researchers now believe that the accumulation of amyloid and tau protein:
a. is a result of the Alzheimer's disease.
b. are partly the cause of Alzheimer's disease.
c. are byproducts of acetylcholine.
d. are byproducts of dying glial cells.

b. are partly the cause of Alzheimer's disease.

119

Structures formed from degenerating neuronal cell bodies are called:
a. tau proteins.
b. amyloid beta proteins.
c. tangles.
d. confabulations.

c. tangles.

120

Amyloid is to ____, as tau is to ____.
a. plaques, tangles
b. tangles, plaques
c. neurons, glia
d. glia, neurons

a. plaques, tangles

121

The most common treatment for Alzheimer’s disease is to give drugs that stimulate:
a. dopamine receptors.
b. acetylcholine receptors.
c. tau receptors.
d. GABA receptors.

b. acetylcholine receptors.

122

In studies with mice, the antioxidant curcumin reduced:
a. blood pressure.
b. amyloid levels and plaques.
c. acetylcholine release.
d. glutamate levels.

b. amyloid levels and plaques.

123

A possible treatment for Alzheimer's is the administration of drugs that:
a. stimulate acetylcholine receptors.
b. inhibit the basal forebrain.
c. inhibit acetylcholine release.
d. increase Aß42 production.

a. stimulate acetylcholine receptors.

124

Research with rats suggests that the risk for Alzheimer's disease can be reduced by eating a diet rich in:
a. protein.
b. carbohydrates.
c. thiamine.
d. antioxidants.

d. antioxidants.

125

The study of amnesic patients leads us to the conclusion that people have ____ kind of memory, and that memory depends on ____ of the brain.
a. one; one specific location
b. one; different parts
c. more than one; one specific location
d. more than one; different parts

d. more than one; different parts

126

Altered tau protein cannot bind to its usual targets within axons, and so it ____.
a. stops spreading into the cell body and dendrites
b. stops spreading into the cell body only
c. starts spreading into the cell body only
d. starts spreading into the cell body and dendrites

d. starts spreading into the cell body and dendrites

127

A study of patients with amnesia reveals that people:
a. lose all aspects of memory equally
b. have predictable memory loss
c. can be categorized into distinct forms of memory loss
d. do not lose all aspects of memory equally

d. do not lose all aspects of memory equally

128

People with parietal lobe damage the process of ____ is damaged.
a. remembering names
b. associating one event with another
c. episodic memory
d. Speech

b. associating one event with another

129

People with damage in the anterior and inferior regions of the temporal lobe suffer:
a. cingulate dementia.
b. implicit dementia.
c. lexical dementia.
d. semantic dementia.

d. semantic dementia.

130

Parts of the ____ are important for learning about rewards and punishments.
a. Hypothalamus
b. Fornix
c. prefrontal cortex
d. temporal cortex

c. prefrontal cortex

131

When Penfield stimulated the temporal cortex of alert and awake brain surgery patients, he found that they:
a. went into spastic convulsions.
b. remembered specific events from earlier in their lives in great detail.
c. lost all memory for events during and shortly preceding the stimulation.
d. had a dream-like experience.

d. had a dream-like experience.

132

Recent interpretation of Walter Penfield's brain stimulation studies suggests that brain stimulation:
a. produces dreamlike experiences.
b. results in memory of motor skills.
c. is better for recovering lost memories.
d. has no effect.

a. produces dreamlike experiences.

133

One line of research that initially appeared promising, but has since faded, was to study learning in decapitated:
a. fish.
b. rats.
c. monkeys.
d. cockroaches.

d. cockroaches.

134

Why did some experimenters in the 1960's and 1970's grind up the brains of some rats and inject extracts into other rats?
a. It was believed that the extra neurotransmitter would speed up learning.
b. It was believed that memories could be transferred in this way.
c. They were interested in brain transplants, and wanted to see if the material would be rejected.
d. Studies of human cannibals had found extraordinary memory abilities.

b. It was believed that memories could be transferred in this way.

135

What is the current status of research on transfer of training through brain extracts?
a. It is generally accepted that this works under a variety of conditions.
b. Transfer succeeds only in planaria: it has never worked with any other species.
c. It has been revealed that claims of such a phenomenon were based on fraud.
d. Research ended without a conclusion because the phenomenon was difficult to replicate.

d. Research ended without a conclusion because the phenomenon was difficult to replicate.

136

A "Hebbian" synapse is one in which:
a. activity at that synapse strengthens the response of the postsynaptic neuron to all of its synapses.
b. repeated use of the synapse over a limited period of time leads to habituation.
c. calcium flows into the cell while magnesium flows out of the cell.
d. activity of the synapse, paired with an action potential in the postsynaptic cell, strengthens that synapse.

d. activity of the synapse, paired with an action potential in the postsynaptic cell, strengthens that synapse.

137

It is believed that Hebbian synapses may be critical for:
a. associative learning.
b. reflexes.
c. loudness perception.
d. color vision.

a. associative learning.

138

What is a major advantage of Aplysia for studies on the physiology of learning?
a. Their memories are more permanent than those of vertebrates.
b. There are no differences between one neuron and another.
c. There is great similarity of nervous system anatomy from one individual to another.
d. They have only one type of learning.

c. There is great similarity of nervous system anatomy from one individual to another.

139

Why is the Aplysia such a popular animal for single-cell studies of learning?
a. Individual cells identified in one animal can be recognized in another.
b. Aplysia have greater learning abilities than other invertebrates.
c. Aplysia have short-term learning but not long-term learning.
d. Aplysia have only two neurotransmitters, one excitatory and one inhibitory.

a. Individual cells identified in one animal can be recognized in another.

140

If a stimulus is presented repeatedly, followed by no other stimulus, the animal will gradually stop responding. This is known as:
a. sensitization.
b. habituation.
c. classical conditioning.
d. imprinting.

b. habituation.

141

If a jet of water is repeatedly squirted at the gills of an Aplysia, ____ occurs.
a. sensitization
b. habituation
c. operant conditioning
d. classical conditioning

b. habituation

142

If you stimulate the gills of an Aplysia by squirting them with a brief jet of seawater, at first it will:
a. ignore the water.
b. withdraw its gills.
c. take in the water through the gills.
d. squirt the water in the direction of the source.

b. withdraw its gills.

143

Habituation of the gill withdrawal response in Aplysia depends on:
a. muscle fatigue.
b. a decreased response by the sensory nerve to the stimulus.
c. a change in the synapse between the sensory neuron and the motor neuron.
d. an increase in the inhibitory impulses from sources other than the sensory nerve.

c. a change in the synapse between the sensory neuron and the motor neuron.

144

During habituation of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia, the change in the nervous system takes place at the:
a. axon hillock of the sensory receptor.
b. axon of the motor neuron.
c. synapse between the sensory neuron and the motor neuron.
d. inhibitory neurons that connect to the motor neuron.

c. synapse between the sensory neuron and the motor neuron.

145

Which of the following is an example of sensitization?
a. Following a series of electrical shocks, a person overresponds to noises.
b. Following a series of loud noises, a person is no longer aroused by additional noises.
c. After repeated pairings of a noise with shock, a person is aroused less than usual by any mild stimulus.
d. After repeated pairings of a noise with shock, a person is aroused less than usual only by the noise.

a. Following a series of electrical shocks, a person overresponds to noises.

146

After a series of electrical shocks, a person becomes overresponsive to lights and noises. This exemplifies:
a. habituation.
b. sensitization.
c. operant conditioning.
d. classical conditioning.

b. sensitization.

147

Habituation and sensitization differ depending upon whether:
a. the effect is retroactive or proactive.
b. the response grows weaker or stronger.
c. the animal's behavior changes or fails to change.
d. it occurs in all species or just mammals.

b. the response grows weaker or stronger.

148

Strong stimulation anywhere on the skin of an Aplysia excites axons that release:
a. substance P.
b. serotonin.
c. neuropeptide Y.
d. dopamine.

b. serotonin.

149

Strong stimulation anywhere on the skin of an Aplysia excites axons that attach to receptors and:
a. open potassium channels in the membrane.
b. close potassium channels in the membrane.
c. opens sodium channels in the membrane.
d. close sodium channels in the membrane.

b. close potassium channels in the membrane.

150

Which of the following would most likely interfere with sensitization in the Aplysia?
a. increasing serotonin levels
b. decreasing serotonin levels
c. pinching the skin
d. blocking GABA receptors

b. decreasing serotonin levels

151

Following a certain kind of experience in Aplysia, a facilitating interneuron causes changes that block the potassium channels at the end of the axon of the sensory neuron, leading to:
a. sensitization.
b. habituation.
c. both sensitization and habituation.
d. death of the individual sensory neuron.

a. sensitization.

152

In Aplysia, sensitization has been found to depend on a series of events that:
a. block sodium channels in the motor neuron.
b. decrease calcium concentration in the area surrounding the sensory neuron.
c. open chloride channels in the motor neuron.
d. block potassium channels in the sensory neuron.

d. block potassium channels in the sensory neuron.

153

Research on Aplysia shows us that at least one physiological basis for learning involves which of the following?
a. changes in RNA molecules
b. presynaptic changes
c. increased dendrite branching
d. changes in glia

b. presynaptic changes

154

How does one produce long-term potentiation of cells in the mammalian nervous system?
a. a burst of many stimuli within a few seconds
b. many stimuli spaced at exactly equal intervals over a period of minutes
c. minutes of uninterrupted inhibitory stimulation
d. a simultaneous pairing of an excitatory stimulus and an inhibitory stimulus

a. a burst of many stimuli within a few seconds

155

If there is a burst of intense stimulation to a dendrite by one or more axons connected to it in a rapid series, it is known as:
a. long-term potentiation of the cell's response to stimuli.
b. long-term inhibition of the cell's response to stimuli.
c. potentiation of the cell's response to stimuli for a few seconds.
d. inhibition of the cell's response to stimuli for a few seconds.

a. long-term potentiation of the cell's response to stimuli.

156

It is hoped that long-term potentiation (LTP) will help to explain:
a. Alzheimer's disease.
b. Korsakoff's syndrome.
c. learning and memory.
d. inherited intelligence.

c. learning and memory.

157

If some of the synapses onto a cell have been highly active and others have not, only the active ones become strengthened. This is known as the property of:
a. specificity.
b. cooperativity.
c. associativity.
d. NMDA.

a. specificity.

158

Nearly simultaneous stimulation by two or more axons produces LTP, whereas stimulation by just one produces it weakly, if at all. This is known as the property of:
a. specificity.
b. cooperativity.
c. associativity.
d. LTD.

b. cooperativity.

159

Pairing a weak input with a strong input enhances later responses to the weak input. This is known as the property of:
a. specificity.
b. cooperativity
c. associativity.
d. LTD.

c. associativity.

160

A long-term depression (LTD) in a neuron is a decreased response at synapses that occurs when:
a. axons fire rapidly.
b. axons fire slowly.
c. an excitatory synapse and an inhibitory synapse fire together.
d. an axon excites a synaptic receptor distant from its usual site.

b. axons fire slowly.

161

At many hippocampal synapses, long-term potentiation depends on the activation of NMDA receptors, which are responsive to:
a. GABA.
b. glutamate.
c. dopamine.
d. norepinephrine.

b. glutamate.

162

Long-term potentiation produces a long-term enhancement of glutamate responses at
A AMPA synapses.
B NMDA synapses.
C both AMPA and NMDA synapses.
D neither AMPA nor NMDA synapses.

A AMPA synapses.

163

At many hippocampal synapses, long-term potentiation depends on the activation of which type of receptor?
a. Nicotinic
b. Muscarinic
c. NMDA
d. GABA

c. NMDA

164

In addition to the neurotransmitter glutamate, in order to activate the NMDA receptors, the neuron requires:
a. serotonin.
b. dopamine.
c. increased release of magnesium ions from the presynaptic neuron.
d. removal of magnesium ions from sodium and calcium channels.

d. removal of magnesium ions from sodium and calcium channels.

165

Under most conditions, NMDA receptors do NOT respond to their neurotransmitter because:
a. magnesium ions block the passage of calcium through the receptor's channel.
b. too many sodium ions enter through the AMPA channels.
c. any recent depolarization of the membrane inactivates the NMDA receptors.
d. the channel can open only when the potassium concentration inside the neuron exceeds a certain high level.

a. magnesium ions block the passage of calcium through the receptor's channel.

166

The NMDA receptor responds to its transmitters when:
a. magnesium is present in the membrane.
b. enough sodium ions exit through AMPA channels.
c. the membrane is already at least partly depolarized.
d. the dendrite is depolarized enough to produce an action potential.

c. the membrane is already at least partly depolarized.

167

What is known to be critical for long-term potentiation?
a. high levels of magnesium
b. only one axon being active at a time
c. the absence of NMDA receptors
d. a massive inflow of calcium

d. a massive inflow of calcium

168

When glutamate massively stimulates AMPA receptors, the resulting depolarization:
a. keeps glutamate from stimulating nearby NMDA receptors.
b. keeps calcium from entering the cell.
c. enables glutamate to stimulate nearby NMDA receptors.
d. inhibits the dendrite's responsiveness to glutamate.

c. enables glutamate to stimulate nearby NMDA receptors.

169

CaMKII is directly activated by:
a. calcium
b. sodium
c. GABA
d. potassium

a. calcium

170

A diet low in calcium could possible interfere with learning by preventing:
a. the sodium potassium pump from working.
b. dendrite migration.
c. NMDA receptor production.
d. activation of CaMKII.

d. activation of CaMKII.

171

Which of the following is NOT a way in which CaMKII facilitates LTP?
a. Dendrites build more AMPA receptors.
b. Neurons produce more NMDA receptors.
c. Individual AMPA receptors become more active.
d. Neurons decrease dendritic branching.

d. Neurons decrease dendritic branching.

172

Once LTP has been established:
a. it remains dependent on NMDA synapses.
b. it fades quickly.
c. AMPA receptors convert into NMDA receptors.
d. the AMPA receptors are more responsive to glutamate.

d. the AMPA receptors are more responsive to glutamate.

173

Blocking NMDA synapses has what effect, if any, on LTP?
a. There is no effect on LTP.
b. It enhances the establishment of LTP.
c. It prevents the establishment of LTP.
d. In prevents the maintenance of previously established LTP.

c. It prevents the establishment of LTP.

174

Drugs that block NMDA synapses:
a. interfere with the maintenance of LTP.
b. prevent the establishment of LTP.
c. facilitate the maintenance of LTP.
d. facilitate the establishment of LTP.

b. prevent the establishment of LTP.

175

Retrograde transmitters:
a. are produced in the axon terminals.
b. inhibit the postsynaptic cell.
c. are broken down before they are released.
d. are released by the postsynaptic cell.

d. are released by the postsynaptic cell.

176

The most enduring forms of LTP depend on changes in the:
a. presynaptic neuron only.
b. postsynaptic neuron only.
c. pre and postsynaptic neurons.
d. dendritic branching.

c. pre and postsynaptic neurons.

177

Some memory-enhancing supplements appear to act in common by:
a. increasing blood flow to the brain.
b. blocking LTP.
c. decreasing calcium levels.
d. stimulating acetylcholine receptors.

a. increasing blood flow to the brain.

178

Researchers have found several drugs, including ____, which weaken memories of recent events.
a. gingko biloba
b. prozac
c. propanolol
d. clozapine

c. propanolol