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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (195):
1

T/F Neuroscientists are more interested in studying behavior than biological psychologists.

False

2

T/F According to Tinbergen, a physiological explanation describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did.

False

3

T/F An evolutionary explanation describes why a structure or behavior evolved.

False

4

T/F An ontogenetic explanation is one that describes the development of a structure or behavior.

True

5

T/F A functional explanation describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did.

True

6

T/F Genes are the units of heredity.

True

7

T/F A strand of DNA serves as a template (model) for the synthesis of RNA molecules.

True

8

T/F It is possible for two heterozygous brown-eyed parents to have blue-eyed children.

True

9

T/F If both parents are heterozygous, then all of their children should be homozygous.

False

10

T/F The sex chromosomes X and Y are known as autosomal genes.

False

11

T/F Sex-linked genes are usually found on the Y chromosome.

False

12

T/F When chromosomes cross over, it is more likely to affect genes that are on separate chromosomes than genes that are on the same chromosome.

True

13

T/F The genetic sex of an offspring is determined primarily by the sex chromosome contributed by the mother.

False

14

T/F Sex-limited genes are found only on the X and Y chromosome.

False

15

T/F To determine the contributions of heredity and environment, researchers rely mainly on studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins.

True

16

T/F Researchers have found specific genes linked to certain specific behaviors.

True

17

T/F The damaging effects of phenylalanine in children with PKU are unavoidable.

False

18

T/F Genes become more prevalent in a population if they contribute to reproductive success.

True

19

T/F Humans have stopped evolving

False

20

T/F Evolutionary psychology deals with how behaviors have evolved, especially social behaviors.

True

21

T/F Research scientists are free to do as they wish when conducting research with animals.

False

22

T/F The underlying mechanisms of behavior are similar across species.

True

23

T/F Invertebrate nerves follow the same basic principles as human nerves.

True

24

T/F Minimalists do not tolerate any kind of animal research.

False

25

T/F Professional organizations such as the Society for Neuroscience publish guidelines for the use of animals in research.

True

26

T/F Abolitionists maintain that no animals have the same rights as humans.

False

27

T/F The dispute between abolitionists and animal researchers is a dispute between two ethical positions.

True

28

T/F The ethical debate between animal researchers and abolitionists has always proceeded in an intelligent and mutually respectful way.

False

29

Biological psychologists are primarily interested in the study of the physiological, evolutionary, and ____.
a. social influence on attitudes
b. developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience
c. use of reinforcement to change behavior
d. mental well-being of plants

b. developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience

30

At the microscopic level, we find two kinds of cells: ____.
a. molecules and mitochondria
b. mitochondria and glia
c. neurons and glia
d. neurons and molecules

c. neurons and glia

31

The primary difference between biological psychologists and neuroscientists is that neuroscientists place greater emphasis on studying:
a. chemistry.
b. psychology.
c. biology.
d. behavior.

d. behavior.

32

4. Much of biological psychology concerns:
a. chemistry.
b. brain functioning.
c. neurology.
d. anatomy.

b. brain functioning.

33

Jill is interested in studying how hormones influence sexual behavior of rats. She is most likely a:
a. biological psychologist.
b. neuroscientist.
c. clinical psychologist.
d. psychiatrist.

a. biological psychologist

34

The question “Given this universe composed of matter and energy, why is there such a thing as consciousness?” is called the ____.
a. cosmic force question
b. mind-body problem
c. universal question
d. biological problem

b. mind-body problem

35

A fundamental property is one that ____.
a. answers all questions
b. occurs only in certain parts of the nervous system
c. cannot be reduced to something else
d. cannot be explained

c. cannot be reduced to something else

36

If a person believes that hormones released at different stages of the menstrual cycle affect a person’s mood, then it would be considered a(n) ____ explanation.
a. functional
b. ontogenetic
c. physiological
d. evolutionary

c. physiological

37

9. A(n) ____ explanation describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did.
a. functional
b. ontogenetic
c. physiological
d. evolutionary

a. functional

38

A(n) ____ describes how a structure or behavior develops, including the influences of genes, nutrition, experiences, and their interactions.
a. functional
b. ontogenetic
c. physiological
d. evolutionary

b. ontogenetic

39

Understanding how genes, nutrition, and experience work together to produce a tendency toward a particular sexual orientation is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.
a. ontogenetic
b. evolutionary
c. functional
d. common sense

a. ontogenetic

40

Which type of explanation describes how a structure or behavior develops?
a. Physiological
b. Ontogenetic
c. Evolutionary
d. Functional

b. Ontogenetic

41

A(n) ____ explanation would describe eating in terms of the hypothalamus affecting insulin production, which affects the availability of glucose in cells.
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. functional

a. physiological

42

Explaining differences in running speed as a function of differences in muscle fiber types is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.
a. ontogenetic
b. physiological
c. evolutionary
d. functional

b. physiological

43

Understanding differences in intelligence as a function of early learning experiences is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.
a. ontogenetic
b. physiological
c. functional
d. evolutionary

a. ontogenetic

44

A person who studies the influence of genetic predisposition to be aggressive in combination with early aggressive experiences is seeking for a(n) ____ explanation.
a. physiological
b. behavioral
c. evolutionary
d. ontogenetic

d. ontogenetic

45

Mapping out the relationship between shared bone structures across different species suggests there is a(n) ____ explanation.
a. ontogenetic
b. evolutionary
c. behavioral
d. physiological

b. evolutionary

46

An evolutionary explanation of why we get goose bumps when cold is that:
a. the sympathetic nervous system is activated.
b. we inherited the mechanism from our remote ancestors who had more hair.
c. it keeps us warm.
d. children are often raised in cold environments.

b. we inherited the mechanism from our remote ancestors who had more hair.

47

Having camouflage that matches an animal’s typical surroundings in order to provide protection from predators is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.
a. evolutionary
b. functional
c. ontogenetic
d. physiological

b. functional

48

A functional explanation of why giraffes have such long necks is that:
a. it lowers the blood pressure in their brains.
b. their necks became longer because they stretched them.
c. it allows them greater access to their food supply.
d. parent giraffes make their babies reach for food.

c. it allows them greater access to their food supply.

49

How human language develops as the result of genes and the opportunity to hear language during a sensitive period in early life is an example of a(n) ____ explanation.
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. functional

b. ontogenetic

50

Which type of explanation might describe the presence of a behavior in a particular species by showing how that behavior increased the reproductive success of the species?
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. solipsistic

c. evolutionary

51

Which type of explanation describes the advantages provided by a particular structure or behavior?
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. functional

d. functional

52

Which of the following is TRUE about genetic drift?
a. It occurs more often in large populations.
b. It occurs when species move to a new location.
c. It takes thousands of years to happen.
d. It occurs more often in small populations.

d. It occurs more often in small populations.

53

In a small population of sheep, the dominant male may produce many more offspring than the other males, spreading his genes. This is an example of:
a. a physiological explanation.
b. artificial selection.
c. genetic drift.
d. recombination.

c. genetic drift.

54

The amygdala appears to be an important part of the brain for experiencing fear. Which of the following is an example of a functional explanation of fear?
a. Describing the anatomical connections between the amygdala and other parts of the brain
b. Describing the neurotransmitters involved in the activity of the amygdala
c. Describing why fear improves the chances for survival
d. Describing how fears develop in infancy

c. Describing why fear improves the chances for survival

55

A(n) ____ explanation of human behavior is often controversial, because many behaviors alleged to be part of our evolutionary heritage could have been learned instead.
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. functional

d. functional

56

In most bird species, only the male sings and then only in his territory during the reproductive season. This is to attract females and to ward off other males, which serves to improve their chances of mating. This behavior demonstrates:
a. that physiological explanations are preferred over other kinds of explanations.
b. learning during a critical period.
c. that physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations are mutually exclusive.
d. how physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations can all be used to explain the same behavior.

d. how physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations can all be used to explain the same behavior.

57

In certain species of songbirds, development of the song requires the opportunity to hear the appropriate song during a sensitive period in life as well as the genes to prepare them to learn the song. This is a(n) ____ explanation of birdsong.
a. physiological
b. ontogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. functional

b. ontogenetic

58

Which of the following would be a functional explanation for why birds sing?
a. Testosterone causes the growth of certain brain areas which control singing in certain birds.
b. Birds sing due to instinct.
c. Birds sing because they hear their song early in life and form a template which controls later singing.
d. Birds sing to defend territories and attract mates.

d. Birds sing to defend territories and attract mates.

59

Which of the following would be a physiological explanation for why birds sing?
a. Testosterone causes the growth of certain brain areas which control singing in certain birds.
b. Birds sing due to instinct.
c. Birds sing because they hear their song early in life and form a template which controls later singing.
d. Birds sing to defend territories and attract mates.

a. Testosterone causes the growth of certain brain areas which control singing in certain birds.

60

An adult male sparrow sings its normal song:
a. if he hears the song during a sensitive period early in his life.
b. only when he hears a female bird singing.
c. if his own species' song is the first song he hears when young.
d. regardless of whether or not he has ever heard his species' song from another bird.

a. if he hears the song during a sensitive period early in his life.

61

Consciousness occurs:
a. in all kinds of nervous systems some of the time.
b. In certain parts of certain kinds of nervous system all of the time.
c. in certain parts of certain kinds of nervous systems some of the time.
d. in all kinds of nervous systems all of the time.

c. in certain parts of certain kinds of nervous systems some of the time.

62

Consciousness does not occur when:
a. you are awake.
b. you are dreaming.
c. You are daydreaming.
d. you are in a dreamless sleep.

d. you are in a dreamless sleep.

63

In addition to when you are in a dreamless sleep, consciousness does not occur when you are ____
a. in a coma.
b. daydreaming.
c. watching television.
d. exercising.

a. in a coma.

64

Biological psychology is a field of study and a ____.
a. fundamental property
b. string theory
c. way to understand our place in the cosmos
d. point of view

d. point of view

65

The brain has an enormous number of ____ and ____.
a. sections; spaces
b. divisions; subareas
c. appendages; spaces
d. sections; subareas

b. divisions; subareas

66

The view of the brain from above is called the ____ view.
a. anterior
b. ventral
c. dorsal
d. posterior

c. dorsal

67

The view of the brain from below is called the ____ view.
a. anterior
b. linear
c. ventral
d. dorsal

c. ventral

68

The ____ explanation calls attention to features left over from ancestors that serve little or no function in descendants.
a. otogenetic
b. physiological
c. evolutionary
d. biological

c. evolutionary

69

The explanation that would be used to call attention to the presence of goose bumps in humans would be the ____ explanation.
a. evolutionary
b. otogenetic
c. neurological
d. physiological

a. evolutionary

70

Goose bumps ____ in humans.
a. show fear
b. show anger
c. create intimidation
d. no longer serve a purpose

d. no longer serve a purpose

71

The erections of hairs on the body, most often around arms and shoulders are called:
a. static.
b. fur.
c. goose bumps.
d. insulation.

c. goose bumps.

72

In furry animals, the erection of hairs helps the animal:
a. show fear.
b. hide.
c. look intimidating.
d. get warm.

c. look intimidating.

73

The use of certain behaviors for camouflage is something that would be covered with the ____ explanation.
a. functional
b. otogenetic
c. evolutionary
d. physiological

a. functional

74

The sea dragon is a fish that looks and acts like kelp in order to attract its food. The explanation that proposed that this is due to genetic modification that expands smaller appendages already present in these fish’s ancestors would be the ____ explanation.
a. functional
b. evolutionary
c. otogenetic
d. biological

b. evolutionary

75

Each of the following requires a Ph.D. except for a ____.
a. clinical psychologist
b. counseling psychologist
c. school psychologist
d. social worker

d. social worker

76

Fields that focus on research include all of the following except:
a. neuroscience.
b. neuropsychology.
c. neurochemistry.
d. neurology.

d. neurology.

77

A(n) ____ investigates the chemical reactions in the brain.
a. neurochemist
b. psychophysiologist
c. comparative psychologist
d. neurologist

a. neurochemist

78

Most ____ have a mixture of psychological and medical training, and they work in hospitals and clinics.
a. neurochemists
b. neuropsychologists
c. neurologists
d. neuroscientists

b. neuropsychologists

79

A ____ helps people with emotional distress or troublesome behaviors, sometimes using drugs or other medical procedures.
a. clinical psychologist
b. psychiatrist
c. neuropsychologist
d. counseling psychologist

b. psychiatrist

80

A stroke patient might seek the aid of a(n) ____ to increase the functions of daily life.
a. neuroscientist
b. clinical psychologist
c. occupational therapist
d. neurochemist

c. occupational therapist

81

A director position in research would normally require at least a ____.
a. Ph.D.
b. master’s degree
c. bachelor’s degree
d. research certificate

a. Ph.D.

82

The field of biological psychology presents a range of career options in ____ and ____.
a. research; sociology
b. therapy; philosophy
c. research; therapy
d. therapy; sociology

c. research; therapy

83

Social workers and clinical psychologists need to be able to recognize possible signs of brain disorder so that they can:
a. set up treatment.
b. refer the client to the proper specialist.
c. construct a behavior plan.
d. monitor progress.

b. refer the client to the proper specialist.

84

According to David Chalmers, consciousness is:
a. a fundamental property of matter.
b. not necessary for brain functioning.
c. easy to observe.
d. independent of the brain.

a. a fundamental property of matter.

85

Chalmers’ fundamental “hard problem” is:
a. knowing why we sleep.
b. understanding how neurotransmitters are created.
c. wondering how someone could be a dualist.
d. why and how brain activity is associated with consciousness.

d. why and how brain activity is associated with consciousness.

86

According to Chalmers, knowing why and how brain activity is associated with consciousness is the:
a. mentalistic debate.
b. hard problem.
c. easy problem.
d. problem of other minds.

b. hard problem.

87

hich of the following careers is MOST different than the others?
a. Behavioral neuroscientist
b. Neuropsychologist
c. Psychophysiologist
d. Psychiatrist

d. Psychiatrist

88

A researcher is interested in how the nervous system responds when the organism is in a certain emotional situation. This researcher might be identified as a(n):
a. neuroscientist.
b. neurosurgeon.
c. sociobiologist.
d. comparative psychologist.

a. neuroscientist.

89

. Someone who investigates how the functioning of the brain and other organs influences behavior is called a:
a. sociobiologist.
b. neuropsychologist.
c. behavioral neuroscientist.
d. comparative psychologist.

c. behavioral neuroscientist.

90

A neuropsychologist ____.
a. has an M.D. and specializes in the treatment of brain damage
b. conducts research on animal behavior (similar to an ethologist)
c. is more often a teacher than a practitioner
d. tests the abilities and disabilities of brain-damaged people

d. tests the abilities and disabilities of brain-damaged people

91

A comparative psychologist:
a. compares the reactions different people have in similar situations.
b. considers the evolutionary histories of different species and their behaviors.
c. compares nervous system responses of different people.
d. helps people with emotional distress.

b. considers the evolutionary histories of different species and their behaviors.

92

A medical degree is MOST likely held by which specialist?
a. behavioral neuroscientist
b. neurologist
c. biopsychologist
d. neuropsychologist

b. neurologist

93

Which of the following specialists is MOST likely to hold a medical degree?
a. behavioral neuroscientist
b. neurologist
c. biopsychologist
d. neuropsychologist

b. neurologist

94

Which of the following specialists is MOST likely to work with people with brain damage?
a. comparative psychologist
b. biopsychologist
c. neuropsychologist
d. psychobiologist

c. neuropsychologist

95

A psychiatrist:
a.helps people with emotional distress.
b.performs brain surgery.
c.treats people with brain damage.
d. relates behaviors to the functions they have served in their evolutionary past.

a.helps people with emotional distress.

96

Which of the following specialists would be MOST interested in changes in heart rate when students are taking an exam?
a. neurologist
b. sociobiologist
c. psychophysiologist
d. neuroscientist

c. psychophysiologist

97

Of the following, which person is MOST likely to deal exclusively with brain disorders?
a. social worker
b. physical therapist
c. clinical psychologist
d. neurologist

d. neurologist

98

When researchers try to estimate the heritability of a human behavior, what are the main kinds of individuals they consider?
A Twins and adopted children
B People from non-western cultures
C Newborns and infants
D Uneducated people living in educated societies

A Twins and adopted children

99

The results of several studies of facial expressions in people who were born blind suggest:
a. a minor role for genetics in the control of facial expressions.
b. a major role for genetics as well as environment in the control of facial expressions.
c. no role of genetics in the control of facial expressions.
d. no role of genetics but a major role of environment in the control of facial expressions.

b. a major role for genetics as well as environment in the control of facial expressions.

100

Units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another are:
a. enzymes.
b. mutations.
c. nucleic acids.
d. genes.

d.genes.

101

What are chromosomes composed of?
a. DNA
b. RNA
c. proteins
d. carbohydrates

a. DNA

102

Chromosomes consist of large, double-stranded molecules of:
a. deoxyribonucleic acid.
b. ribonucleic acid.
c. autosomal genes.
d. recombination genes.

a. deoxyribonucleic acid.

103

A strand of DNA serves as a template (model) for the synthesis of ____.
a. chromosomes
b. RNA
c. Proteins
d. Carbohydrates

b. RNA

104

Biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body are called:
a. enzymes.
b. DNA.
c. RNA.
d. nuclei.

a. enzymes.

105

Enzymes serve as ____.
a. genetic templates
b. physiological markers of chemical reactions in the body
c. biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body
d. catalysts for the synthesis of protein molecules

c. biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body

106

Interruption of the production of RNA would directly affect which of the following?
a. protein synthesis
b. carbohydrate production
c. sex hormone release
d. production of DNA

a. protein synthesis

107

Chemically, what is the route from genes to their expression?
a. DNA to proteins to RNA
b. DNA to RNA to proteins
c. proteins to DNA to RNA
d. RNA to DNA to proteins

b. DNA to RNA to proteins

108

RNA is:
a. an exact copy of DNA.
b. a complementary copy of one strand of a DNA molecule.
c. a combination of many proteins.
d. the product of digesting DNA.

b. a complementary copy of one strand of a DNA molecule.

109

A person with two recessive genes is considered to be ____ for that trait.
a. homozygous
b. heterozygous
c. unitary
d. marginal

a. homozygous

110

Recessive genes manifest their effects only when the individual is ____ for them.
a. sex limited
b. homo sapien
c. homozygous
d. heterozygous

c. homozygous

111

Suppose "A" is a dominant gene and "a" is a recessive gene. One parent has genes Aa and the other parent has genes aa. What genes will the children probably have?
a. All will be AA.
b. All will be aa.
c. Three-fourths will be Aa, one-fourth aa.
d. Half will be Aa, half aa.

d. Half will be Aa, half aa.

112

Suppose "A" is a dominant gene for the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide and "a" is a recessive gene for inability to taste it. Which of the following couples could possibly have both a child who tastes it and a child who does not?
a. father AA, mother aa
b. father Aa, mother AA
c. father Aa, mother Aa
d. father AA, mother AA

c. father Aa, mother Aa

113

Suppose "A" is a dominant gene for the ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and "a" is a recessive gene for inability to do so. Which of the following couples can be certain that all their children will be able to curl their tongue lengthwise?
a. father aa, mother AA
b. father Aa, mother Aa
c. father aa, mother aa
d. father Aa, mother aa

a. father aa, mother AA

114

Suppose both the father and the mother are "heterozygous" for the gene that controls ability to curl the tongue lengthwise, and this gene is dominant. What can we predict about their children?
a. All will be heterozygous for the ability to curl.
b. All will be homozygous for the ability to curl.
c. All will be homozygous for the inability to curl.
d. They may be homozygous or heterozygous for ability to curl, or homozygous for inability.

d. They may be homozygous or heterozygous for ability to curl, or homozygous for inability.

115

In one family, all three children are homozygous for a recessive gene. What can be concluded about the parents?
a. Each parent is also homozygous for the recessive gene.
b. Each parent is heterozygous.
c. One parent is homozygous for the dominant gene; the other is homozygous for the recessive gene.
d. Each parent is either homozygous for the recessive gene or heterozygous.

d. Each parent is either homozygous for the recessive gene or heterozygous.

116

Suppose all people with blonde hair have blue eyes and all people with dark hair have brown eyes. If the genes for eye and hair color are on the same chromosome, then what would most likely happen if these chromosomes crossed over?
a. Hair and eye color could be inherited independently.
b. All people with dark hair would have brown eyes.
c. All people with blonde hair will have brown eyes.
d. Hair color would be dominant over eye color.

a. Hair and eye color could be inherited independently.

117

Suppose all people with blonde hair have blue eyes and all people with dark hair have brown eyes. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation?
a. Hair color is dominant over eye color.
b. There is no genetic variability in hair or eye color in the population.
c. Blue eyes are dominant over brown eyes.
d. Hair and eye color are on the same chromosome.

d. Hair and eye color are on the same chromosome.

118

A trait not expressed when combined with a dominant trait is called a(n) ____ trait.
a. nurture
b. recessive
c. dominant
d. homozygous

b. recessive

119

Suppose that adopted children are more similar to their biological parents than their adoptive parents in their preferences for a flavor of ice cream. Which of the following would be true?
a. Heritability of this trait is high.
b. Preferences for ice cream are determined solely by the environment.
c. Flavors of ice cream are naturally selected.
d. Heritability of this trait is low.

a. Heritability of this trait is high.

120

Almost all humans have 23 pairs of which of the following?
a. RNA
b. Chromosomes
c. Genes
d. Corduroys

b. Chromosomes

121

An autosomal gene is a gene:
a. on the X chromosome.
b. on the Y chromosome.
c. on any chromosome other than the X or Y chromosome.
d. that shows no evidence of crossing over.

c. on any chromosome other

122

Which of the following pairs of sex chromosomes would be found in a normal male mammal?
a. XX
b. XY
c. YY
d. YZ

b. XY

123

In humans, which chromosome(s) contain(s) few genes?
a. All human chromosomes contain few genes.
b. Both the X and Y chromosomes contain few genes.
c. The X chromosome contains few genes.
d. The Y chromosome contains few genes.

d. The Y chromosome contains few genes.

124

In general, when biologists speak of sex-linked genes they are referring to genes on:
a. autosomal chromosomes.
b. more than one chromosome.
c. the X chromosome.
d. the Y chromosome.

c. the X chromosome.

125

If a characteristic is controlled by an X-linked recessive gene, it produces its apparent effects:
a. more often in males.
b. more often in females.
c. only in childhood.
d. only after puberty.

a. more often in males.

126

An example of a sex-linked trait is:
a. eye color.
b. color vision deficiency.
c. temperament.
d. intelligence.

b. color vision deficiency.

127

Color vision deficiency is more common in males than in females because it is controlled by a:
a. sex-limited gene.
b. Y-linked gene.
c. dominant X-linked gene.
d. recessive X-linked gene.

d. recessive X-linked gene.

128

Genes located on the sex chromosomes are called:
a. sex-linked.
b. sex-limited.
c. autosomal.
d. recombination.

a. sex-linked.

129

Males are more likely than females to exhibit color vision deficiency because of a gene that is:
a. sex-limited.
b. recessive and sex-linked.
c. crossing over.
d. dominant and sex-linked.

b. recessive and sex-linked.

130

Sex-limited genes are found on:
a. X chromosomes only.
b. Y chromosomes only.
c. X AND Y chromosomes.
d. any chromosomes.

d. any chromosomes.

131

Sex-limited genes are present:
a. in males only.
b. in females only.
c. in both sexes.
d. on enzymes.

c. in both sexes.

132

A gene is found that controls the age at which a man grows bald, if at all. That gene seldom affects women, even if they have the gene. What kind of gene is this MOST likely to be?
a. an X-linked gene
b. a sex-limited gene
c. a sex-linked dominant gene
d. a sex-linked recessive gene

b. a sex-limited gene

133

Which of the following is the BEST explanation for why males can grow breasts under certain hormonal conditions?
a. Sex-linked genes become activated.
b. The Y chromosome becomes activated.
c. Sex-limited genes become activated.
d. Breast growth is linked to color vision deficiency.

c. Sex-limited genes become activated.

134

Under what conditions are the effects of sex-limited genes demonstrated?
a. When they are dominant
b. When they are homozygous
c. When particular hormones are present
d. When they appear on the X chromosome

c. When particular hormones are present

135

On a given trait, high heritability suggests that:
a. adopted children will closely resemble their biological parents.
b. adopted children will closely resemble their adoptive parents.
c. identical twins will be less similar to each other than adopted siblings.
d. fraternal twins will be more similar to each other than identical twins.

a. adopted children will closely resemble their biological parents.

136

What are the chances of having a child with at least one dominant gene if both parents are heterozygous?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%

c. 75%

137

If a group of individuals shares a highly similar environment, what effect does this have on the heritability estimate of a characteristic?
a. Heritability will be low.
b. Heritability will be high.
c. Heritability estimates will be unaffected.
d. It is determined by the power of the environmental factors.

b. Heritability will be high.

138

For a group of individuals, the heritability score for a particular trait = .5. What can be said about the heredity of this trait?
a. Hereditary differences account for all of the observed differences for this group of individuals.
b. Hereditary differences account for none of the observed differences for this group of individuals.
c. Hereditary differences account for some of the observed differences for this group of individuals.
d. The differences found within this group are mostly due to differences in the environment.

c. Hereditary differences account for some of the observed differences for this group of individuals.

139

What is the relationship between heritability estimates and environmental factors?
a. High environmental consistency raises heritability estimates.
b. High environmental consistency lowers heritability estimates.
c. Environments have no effect on heritability estimates.
d. The effects of the environment on heritability estimates are unpredictable.

a. High environmental consistency raises heritability estimates.

140

If a trait has high heritability:
a. hereditary differences account for none of the observed variations in that characteristic within that population.
b. the environment cannot influence that trait.
c. it is still possible for the environment to influence that trait.
d. the trait is not influenced by heredity.

c. it is still possible for the environment to influence that trait.

141

Which of the following would contribute to an overestimation of heritability?
a. Increasing the genetic similarity between people
b. Eliminating the multiplier effect
c. Overestimating the effect of the environment
d. Ignoring the effect of the prenatal environment

d. Ignoring the effect of the prenatal environment

142

Which of the following factors, if overlooked, may lead to an overestimation of heritability?
a. Prenatal environment
b. Low IQ
c. Sex-linked genes
d. RNA

a. Prenatal environment

143

Researchers have tested many behaviors for heritability and have found evidence of a link to heritability for almost every behavior tested. One exception is:
a. social attitudes.
b. loneliness.
c. television watching.
d. religious affiliation.

d. religious affiliation.

144

Any estimate of the heritability of a particular trait is specific to:
a. a given population.
b. the parents.
c. the trait.
d. the strength of the trait.

a. a given population.

145

Which one of the following statements is TRUE about PKU?
a. It is the genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.
b. It measures brain activity.
c. It is not a hereditary condition.
d. It does not need to be treated.

a. It is the genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.

146

Individuals afflicted with PKU need to avoid:
a. foods high in phenylalanine.
b. foods high in vitamin K.
c. alcohol.
d. sunlight.

a. foods high in phenylalanine.

147

Why do children with PKU become mentally retarded?
a. Unmetabolized amino acids accumulate and affect the brain.
b. Essential axons lack myelin sheaths.
c. Dendrites and synapses fail to form in associative areas of the cortex.
d. Their immune systems do not fight off brain infections.

a. Unmetabolized amino acids accumulate and affect the brain.

148

What is TRUE about a newborn baby with PKU?
a. The baby is already, irreversibly mentally retarded.
b. The baby is not mentally retarded, but inevitably will become mentally retarded.
c. The baby can avoid becoming mentally retarded by special education.
d. The baby can avoid becoming mentally retarded by following a strict diet.

d. The baby can avoid becoming mentally retarded by following a strict diet.

149

How is it possible to prevent the mental retardation that is generally associated with PKU?
a. Through exercise
b. Through diet
c. Through drugs
d. Through exposure to bright light

b. Through diet

150

Untreated PKU will result in:
a. a loss of phenylalanine.
b. impaired brain development.
c. temporary loss of memory.
d. enhanced brain development.

b. impaired brain development.

151

Which of the following is an example of a genetically controlled condition that can be minimized by following a particular diet?
a. Down syndrome
b. Color-blindness
c. Epilepsy
d. Phenylketonuria (PKU)

d. Phenylketonuria (PKU)

152

Someone claims that if genes control a condition, it can be controlled only by drugs or surgery, but not by changes in the environment. Which of the following is the strongest example to CONTRADICT that claim?
a. Color-blindness
b. Eye color
c. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
d. Down syndrome

c. Phenylketonuria (PKU)

153

For children with PKU on an ordinary diet, the heritability of PKU would be virtually ____.
a. 0
b. .5
c. 1.0
d. impossible to calculate

c. 1.0

154

Changes in single genes are called:
a. alterations.
b. mutations.
c. mendelians.
d. enzymes.

b. mutations.

155

Most mutations produce:
a. dominant genes.
b. recessive genes.
c. sex-linked genes.
d. sex-limited genes.

b. recessive genes.

156

Mutations are:
a. a common occurrence in most single genes.
b. guided by the needs of the organism in its environment.
c. almost always beneficial to the organism.
d. changes in single genes.

d. changes in single genes.

157

To say that there is a "gene for blue eyes":
a. means that a gene directly produces blue eyes.
b. suggests dominance, since you only need one gene to express the trait.
c. suggests that other genes might produce blue eyes also.
d. means that a gene indirectly produces blue eyes through a complex process of protein synthesis and environmental input.

d. means that a gene indirectly produces blue eyes through a complex process of protein synthesis and environmental input.

158

Which of the following is NOT one of the many ways that genes can affect behavior?
a. Genes may affect neurotransmitter levels or receptors.
b. Genes can act indirectly by making it more likely you will be raised in a particular environment.
c. Genes themselves cause behavior without any influence of the environment.
d. Genes produce proteins that may make it more likely for a person to become addicted.

c. Genes themselves cause behavior without any influence of the environment.

159

For natural selection to generate evolutionary change in a population:
a. there need not be any differences in the traits of individuals in that population.
b. the change in gene frequencies must help the species in the long run.
c. the differences must have a hereditary basis.
d. the change in gene frequencies will probably be harmful to the species.

c. the differences must have a hereditary basis.

160

Which of the following is necessarily included in the concept of evolution?
a. Species improvements from one generation to the next.
b. "If you don't use it, you lose it."
c. Generationally changing frequencies of various genes in the population.
d. Improvements to the individual.

c. Generationally changing frequencies of various genes in the population.

161

Which of the following BEST describes the concept of evolution?
a. "Survival of the fittest"
b. "Reproduction of the fittest"
c. "If you don't use it, you lose it."
d. "Always look for ways to improve."

b. "Reproduction of the fittest"

162

Which of the following is TRUE with respect to evolution?
a. "If you don't use it, you lose it."
b. Evolutionary success is assessed by the number of one's offspring surviving to reproduce.
c. Evolution benefits the species, in the long run.
d. Evolution benefits the individual.

b. Evolutionary success is assessed by the number of one's offspring surviving to reproduce.

163

What is it called when some animals are selectively bred because they possess some desirable characteristic?
a. Evolution
b. Natural selection
c. Artificial selection
d. Artificial insemination

c. Artificial selection

164

Breeding some animals selectively because they possess some desirable characteristic is called:
a. evolution.
b. natural selection.
c. artificial selection.
d. artificial insemination.

c. artificial selection.

165

Breeding particular cows together to create offspring that produce more milk is an example of:
a. natural selection.
b. artificial selection.
c. evolution.
d. mutation.

b. artificial selection.

166

The primary difference between artificial selection and natural selection is:
a. artificial selection results in fewer mutations.
b. natural selection is faster.
c. artificial selection is ineffective.
d. the factor that determines who will survive and reproduce.

d. the factor that determines who will survive and reproduce.

167

When a dog is bred for a particular trait, this is called:
a. artificial selection.
b. evolution.
c. natural selection.
d. group selection.

a. artificial selection.

168

Which of the following represents Lamarckian evolution?
a. "Survival of the fittest"
b. "Reproduction of the fittest"
c. "If you don't use it, you lose it"
d. "Look out for number one"

c. "If you don't use it, you lose it"

169

The phrase "If you don't use it, you lose it" best represents ____.
a. Lamarckian evolution
b. Darwinian evolution
c. artificial evolution
d. Huxley’s evolution

a. Lamarckian evolution

170

The theory of evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics is known as:
a. Lamarckian evolution.
b. Darwinian evolution.
c. artificial evolution.
d. Huxley’s evolution.

a. Lamarckian evolution.

171

Which of the following theories would support the idea that by taking out a peoples' wisdom teeth, eventually fewer people will be born with them?
a. Lamarckian evolution
b. Darwinism
c. Natural selection
d. Artificial selection

a. Lamarckian evolution

172

More people would be born without an appendix if:
a. the appendix was removed before a person reproduced.
b. a person who was born without an appendix reproduces more than people who have an appendix.
c. the appendix was removed after a person reproduced.
d. the appendix of healthy people was x-rayed.

b. a person who was born without an appendix reproduces more than people who have an appendix

173

What supports the argument that humans have NOT stopped evolving?
a. Medicine and technology are keeping more people alive these days.
b. More mutations will occur because of increased use of pesticides.
c. Evolution is based on reproduction rates so as long as some people have more children than others do, their genes will spread.
d. Humans are no longer subject to "survival of the fittest."

c. Evolution is based on reproduction rates so as long as some people have more children than others do, their genes will spread.

174

Which of the following statements about evolution is TRUE?
a. Because having goose bumps isn’t very effective in keeping us warm, soon people will be born without goose bumps.
b. Humans have stopped evolving.
c. Evolution means improvement.
d. Genes in the previous generation may not be adaptive in future generations.

d. Genes in the previous generation may not be adaptive in future generations.

175

Evolution improves the fitness of the population, which is defined as:
a. the number of copies of one's genes that endure in later generations.
b. survival of the individual.
c. ability to adapt to a variety of environments.
d. overall health and well-being.

a. the number of copies of one's genes that endure in later generations.

176

An evolutionary psychologist would likely be most interested in studying:
a. altruistic behavior of meerkats.
b. cardiovascular function across species.
c. anatomy of the rat brain.
d. neurotransmitters in primates.

a. altruistic behavior of meerkats.

177

What is TRUE about altruistic behavior?
a. It is evident in every animal species.
b. It can be completely explained in terms of genetic contributions.
c. It is difficult to explain from an evolutionary/genetic point of view.
d. It has a genetic component only in humans.

c. It is difficult to explain from an evolutionary/genetic point of view.

178

Altruistic behavior is:
a. the idea that individuals help those who will return the favor.
b. the selection for a gene that benefits an individual’s relatives.
c. an action that benefits the actor only.
d. an action that benefits someone other than the actor.

d. an action that benefits someone other than the actor.

179

Why is a genetic explanation for altruism problematic?
a. Only non-human animals exhibit altruistic behaviors.
b. Altruistic behaviors rarely benefit the individual performing them.
c. Altruism is more common among the young than among adults.
d. No behavior has been linked to any genes.

b. Altruistic behaviors rarely benefit the individual performing them.

180

Which of the following would be the BEST example of altruistic behavior?
a. Bullying other kids in the lunch line
b. Spreading rumors about your boss
c. Picking up your room
d. Helping an elderly person across the street

d. Helping an elderly person across the street

181

When organisms help those they recognize as capable of returning the favor, this is termed:
a. kin selection.
b. group selection.
c. reciprocal altruism.
d. sociobiology.

c. reciprocal altruism.

182

Helping your neighbors (who are unrelated to you) rake their leaves because they helped you fix your car is an example of:
a. kin selection.
b. reciprocal altruism.
c. natural selection.
d. group selection.

b. reciprocal altruism.

183

Kin selection as an explanation for altruistic behavior would argue that:
a. individuals help others who help them.
b. individuals pick their mates based on how altruistic they are.
c. individuals spread their genes by helping their relatives.
d. society benefits as a whole when individuals help each other.

c. individuals spread their genes by helping their relatives.

184

Which of the following provides the strongest rationale for how altruistic genes could spread in a population?
a. Altruistic behaviors cost very little.
b. Altruistic groups survive better than less cooperative ones.
c. Animals help those who help them in return.
d. Animals feel better when they help others.

c. Animals help those who help them in return.

185

Kin selection as an explanation for altruistic behavior would argue that:
a. individuals help others who help them.
b. individuals pick their mates based on how altruistic they are.
c. individuals spread their genes by helping their relatives.
d. society benefits as a whole when individuals help each other.

c. individuals spread their genes by helping their relatives.

186

Which of the following explanations for a genetic basis for altruism is most favored by the text?
a. Benefits to the species
b. Kin selection
c. Group selection
d. Involves little individual cost

b. Kin selection

187

According to the text, in the control of behavior, genes are ____.
a. all important and difficult
b. are irrelevant
c. neither all important nor irrelevant
d. all important

c. neither all important nor irrelevant

188

Which of the following is NOT a reason that biological psychologists study animals?
a. Animal's brains and behavior are often similar to humans.
b. Animals are often easier to study than humans.
c. Biological psychologists are interested in the animals themselves.
d. One does not have to consider ethical issues with animals.

d. One does not have to consider ethical issues with animals.

189

Which of the following is NOT a strong argument in support of conducting animal research?
a. The underlying mechanisms are similar across species.
b. Certain ethical restrictions make it impossible to use humans.
c. Animals have shorter life spans for studying developmental changes.
d. Animals can’t give consent to participate in research.

d. Animals can’t give consent to participate in research.

190

How do most biological psychologists feel regarding the use of animals in research?
a. They believe that any animal has the same rights as any human.
b. They will avoid using painful procedures, unless they will directly benefit the animal.
c. They are working to replace all animal experimentation with computer simulations.
d. They use animals only if the potential benefits to humans outweigh the costs to the animals.

d. They use animals only if the potential benefits to humans outweigh the costs to the animals.

191

Minimalists believe that:
a. all research should be done on animals.
b. some animal research is acceptable, but not all.
c. no animal research should be conducted.
d. researchers should use only small animals.

b. some animal research is acceptable, but not all.

192

Which of the following is an argument for animal research?
a. Animal research is beneficial.
b. Animals cannot give informed consent to participate.
c. Animals have the same rights as humans.
d. Killing animals for scientific gain is murder.

a. Animal research is beneficial.

193

Which statement about most psychological experiments using nonhuman animals is correct?
a. Animals are given intense, repeated, inescapable shocks in many experiments.
b. Extreme pain and stress are inflicted in attempts to drive the animals insane.
c. The research leads to no useful discoveries.
d. The research is regulated by animal care committees.

d. The research is regulated by animal care committees.

194

The function of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee is to:
a. evaluate veterinarians who provide care to laboratory animals.
b. determine whether research is merely for the benefit of humans.
c. evaluate proposed experiments to ensure that they minimize pain and discomfort.
d. provide food and water for lab animals, and keep cages clean.

c. evaluate proposed experiments to ensure that they minimize pain and discomfort.

195

Which of the following is not required (or strongly encouraged) of scientists conducting research with animals?
a. Obtain approval of their project by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
b. Abide by standards for cleanliness and animal care.
c. Assume that any procedure that causes humans pain will cause animals pain.
d. All the other choices are required or strongly encouraged.

d. All the other choices are required or strongly encouraged.