Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (216):
1

T/F Transmission of information between neurons occurs in the same way as transmission along the axon.

False

2

T/F A reflex arc consists only of sensory neurons.

False

3

T/F Only sensory neurons are found in a reflex arc.

False

4

T/F Reflexive flexion and extension of a dog's legs can still occur when the spinal cord is disconnected from the brain.

True

5

T/F At synapses, the cell that receives the message is called the presynaptic neuron.

False

6

T/F At synapses, the cell that delivers the message is called the presynaptic neuron.

True

7

T/F Electrical communication between neurons is faster than chemical communication within neurons.

True

8

T/F Chemical communication between neurons is faster than electrical communication within neurons.

False

9

T/F The amount of temporal summation depends on the rate of stimulation.

True

10

T/F Most excitatory post-synaptic potentials result in an action potential.

False

11

T/F Graded potentials can be depolarizations or hyperpolarizations.

True

12

T/F Spatial summation is the result of synaptic inputs from different locations arriving at the same time.

True

13

T/F Inhibitory synapses actively suppress excitatory responses.

True

14

T/F Most neurons have a spontaneous firing rate, a periodic production of action potentials even without synaptic input.

True

15

T/F Some neurotransmitters are monoamines.

True

16

T/F Gases can be used as neurotransmitters.

True

17

T/F Neurotransmitter levels in the brain can be affected by changes in diet.

True

18

T/F Most of the known neurotransmitters are synthesized from amino acids.

True

19

T/F Most neurons release more than one kind of neurotransmitter.

True

20

T/F Generally speaking, a neuron will release a greater number of neurotransmitters than what it will respond to with its own receptors.

False

21

T/F Whether or not a neurotransmitter is excitatory depends on the response of the postsynaptic receptor.

True

22

T/F Rapid changes in heart rate are probably due to the activity of ionotropic receptors.

True

23

T/F Most of the brain’s excitatory ionotropic synapses use the neurotransmitter glutamate.

True

24

T/F Metabotropic synapses use a large variety of transmitters.

True

25

T/F A drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter is an antagonist.

True

26

T/F A drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter is an agonist.

False

27

T/F Unlike studies with animals, MDMA in humans is harmless to serotonin neurons.

False

28

T/F Opiates work at the pain receptors in the skin.

False

29

T/F Marijuana is used medically to enhance memory.

False

30

T/F Marijuana withdrawal is more intense than opiate withdrawal.

False

31

Charles S. Sherrington was the first to infer the properties of which of the following?
a. synapses
b. the refractory period
c. the sodium-potassium pump
d. dendrites and axons

a. synapses

32

____ are specialized junctions between neurons.
a. Nodes of Ranvier
b. Synapses
c. Dendrites
d. Spines

b. Synapses

33

Specialized junctions between neurons are called:
a. nodes of Ranvier.
b. spines.
c. dendrites.
d. synapses.

d. synapses.

34

On the basis of what evidence were the properties of synapses first inferred?
a. the electron microscope
b. single-neuron recordings
c. behavioral observations
d. PET scans

c. behavioral observations

35

The circuit from sensory neuron to muscle response is called:
a. a reflex arc.
b. a synapse.
c. flexion.
d. extension.

a. a reflex arc.

36

The proper order of a reflex arc is:
a. motor neuron, sensory neuron, interneuron.
b. sensory neuron, motor neuron, interneuron.
c. motor neuron, interneuron, sensory neuron.
d. sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron.

d. sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron.

37

Why is the speed of conduction through a reflex arc slower than the speed of conduction of an action potential along an axon?
a. Transmission between neurons at synapses is slower than along axons.
b. The longer an axon, the slower its velocity.
c. Interneurons have thicker axons than other neurons.
d. There are greater amounts of myelin involved in the reflex arc.

a. Transmission between neurons at synapses is slower than along axons.

38

Sherrington deduced that transmission at a synapse must be slower than conduction along an axon. This was based on what kind of evidence?
a. temporal summation
b. drugs that increase or inhibit activity at synapses
c. the speed of reflexive responses
d. differences in diameter between axons and dendrites

d. differences in diameter between axons and dendrites

39

A certain weak stimulus produces no reflexive response, but a rapid repetition of that stimulus may produce such a response. What is this phenomenon called?
a. spatial summation
b. temporal summation
c. saltatory conduction
d. synaptic combination

b. temporal summation

40

Sherrington found that repeated stimuli within a brief time have a cumulative effect. He referred to this phenomenon as:
a. temporal summation
b. spatial summation
c. synaptic summation
d. saltatory summation

a. temporal summation

41

Temporal summation most likely occurs with:
a. infrequent, subthreshold excitation.
b. rapid succession of stimuli that each exceed threshold.
c. infrequent, inhibitory stimuli.
d. rapid succession of subthreshold excitation.

d. rapid succession of subthreshold excitation.

42

Which of the following statements regarding reflexes would Charles Sherrington most likely agree with?
a. The overall speed of conduction through a reflex arc is faster than conduction along an axon.
b. Repeated stimuli occurring within a brief time can have a cumulative effect.
c. Each neuron physically merges with the next one.
d. Excitatory synapses are more important than inhibitory synapses.

b. Repeated stimuli occurring within a brief time can have a cumulative effect.

43

To measure temporal summation in single cells, researchers:
a. attach electrodes to the scalp.
b. insert an microelectrode into the scalp.
c. collect sodium and potassium ions from nearby glial cells.
d. record depolarizations of the postsynaptic neuron.

d. record depolarizations of the postsynaptic neuron.

44

A graded depolarization is known as an:
a. EPIP
b. IPSP
c. ESPN
d. EPSP

d. EPSP

45

Which of the following is TRUE about EPSPs?
a. It takes two to produce an action potential.
b. They decay over time and space.
c. They can be either excitatory or inhibitory.
d. They occur because potassium gates open.

b. They decay over time and space.

46

An EPSP is a(n):
a. graded depolarization.
b. depolarization with a rebounding hyperpolarization.
c. graded hyperpolarization.
d. action potential in a reflex arc.

a. graded depolarization.

47

Which of the following is NOT true about EPSPs?
a. They decay over time.
b. Their strength decreases with distance.
c. They operate on an all-or-none principle.
d. They are depolarizations.

c. They operate on an all-or-none principle.

48

The primary difference between an EPSP and an action potential is that:
a. the magnitude of an action potential decreases as it travels along the membrane.
b. EPSPs occur without sodium ions entering the cell.
c. action potentials are always hyperpolarizations.
d. EPSPs are subthreshold events that decay over time and space.

d. EPSPs are subthreshold events that decay over time and space.

49

Depolarization is to ____ as hyperpolarization is to ____.
a. excitation; inhibition
b. inhibition; excitation
c. increasing the threshold; decreasing the threshold
d. decreasing the threshold; increasing the threshold

a. excitation; inhibition

50

What causes an EPSP?
a. the deactivation of cytoplasmic enzymes
b. the opening of sodium channels
c. the opening of potassium channels
d. inherited paranormal psychic abilities

b. the opening of sodium channels

51

Like an action potential, an EPSP results from:
a. sodium ions entering the cell.
b. potassium ions entering the cell.
c. sodium ions exiting the cell.
d. potassium ions exiting the cell.

a. sodium ions entering the cell.

52

Which of the following would produce spatial summation?
a. Present two or more weak stimuli at the same time.
b. Start action potentials at both ends of one axon at the same time.
c. Do not allow a flexor muscle to relax before stimulating it again.
d. Present a rapid sequence of weak stimuli.

a. Present two or more weak stimuli at the same time.

53

Spatial summation refers to:
a. multiple weak stimulations that occur in rapid succession.
b. a decrease in responsiveness after repeated stimulation.
c. multiple weak stimulations that occur at the same time.
d. an increase in the strength of action potentials after repeated stimulation.

c. multiple weak stimulations that occur at the same time.

54

What is the primary difference between temporal summation and spatial summation?
a. Only spatial summation can produce an action potential.
b. Spatial summation depends on contributions from more than one sensory neuron.
c. Temporal summation produces a hyperpolarization instead of a depolarization.
d. Spatial summation alters the response of more than one postsynaptic cell.

b. Spatial summation depends on contributions from more than one sensory neuron.

55

Simultaneous weak stimuli at different locations produce a greater reflexive response than one of the stimuli by itself. What is this phenomenon called?
a. Sherrington's law
b. temporal summation
c. spatial summation
d. the all-or-none law

c. spatial summation

56

What do temporal summation and spatial summation have in common?
a. Both involve the activity of only two neurons.
b. Both require a response from the brain.
c. Both depend on a combination of visual and auditory stimuli.
d. Both enable a reflex to occur in response to weak stimuli.

d. Both enable a reflex to occur in response to weak stimuli.

57

Temporal summation is to ____ as spatial summation is to ____.
a. time, location
b. EPSP, IPSP
c. location, time
d. depolarization, hyperpolarization

a. time, location

58

Which of the following patterns of post-synaptic excitation will most likely result in an action potential?
a. rapid sequence of EPSPs
b. rapid sequence of IPSPs
c. large number of simultaneous IPSPs
d. large number of simultaneous IPSPs and EPSPs

a. rapid sequence of EPSPs

59

When a vertebrate animal contracts the flexor muscles of a leg, it relaxes the extensor muscles of the same leg. Sherrington considered this evidence for the existence of:
a. spatial summation.
b. temporal summation.
c. inhibitory messages.
d. the delay in transmission at synapses.

c. inhibitory messages.

60

What ordinarily prevents extensor muscles from contracting at the same time as flexor muscles?
a. the ligaments and tendons that bind them together
b. learned patterns of coordination in the cerebral cortex
c. inhibitory synapses in the spinal cord
d. control of both muscles by different branches of the same axon.

c. inhibitory synapses in the spinal cord

61

In a reflex arc, the coordination between contraction of certain muscles and relaxation of others is mediated by:
a. glial cells.
b. motor neurons.
c. sensory neurons.
d. interneurons.

d. interneurons.

62

A normal, healthy animal never contracts the flexor muscles and the extensor muscles of the same leg at the same time. Why not?
a. When the interneuron sends excitatory messages to one, inhibitory messages go to the other.
b. They are mechanically connected in a way that makes it impossible for both to contract at the same time.
c. Such coordination is learned through prenatal movement.
d. Both muscles are controlled by branches of the same axon.

a. When the interneuron sends excitatory messages to one, inhibitory messages go to the other.

63

Inhibitory synapses on a neuron:
a. hyperpolarize the postsynaptic cell.
b. weaken the cell's polarization.
c. increase the probability of an action potential.
d. move the potential closer to the cell's threshold.

a. hyperpolarize the postsynaptic cell.

64

A temporary hyperpolarization is known as an:
a. EPSP.
b. IPSP.
c. ISPS.
d. EPIP.

b. IPSP.

65

Which of the following would most likely result in an IPSP?
a. potassium ions entering the cell
b. sodium ions entering the cell
c. chloride ions entering the cell
d. chloride ions leaving the cell

c. chloride ions entering the cell

66

Increased permeability to which of the following ions would most likely result in an IPSP?
a. sodium
b. potassium
c. calcium
d. bicarbonate

b. potassium

67

An IPSP represents:
a. the location where a dendrite branches.
b. a gap in a myelin sheath.
c. a subthreshold depolarization.
d. a temporary hyperpolarization.

d. a temporary hyperpolarization.

68

Increased permeability to ____ would most likely result in an IPSP.
a. sodium
b. potassium
c. calcium
d. bicarbonate

b. potassium

69

An EPSP is to ____ as an IPSP is to ____.
a. hyperpolarization; depolarization
b. depolarization; hyperpolarization
c. spatial summation; temporal summation
d. temporal summation; spatial summation

b. depolarization; hyperpolarization

70

Which of the following is NOT a factor in determining whether or not two EPSPs combine to reach threshold?
a. size of the EPSPs
b. timing between them
c. threshold of the postsynaptic cell
d. threshold of the presynaptic cell

d. threshold of the presynaptic cell

71

Even at rest, most neurons have periodic production of action potentials, known as the:
a. spontaneous firing rate.
b. excitatory firing rate.
c. all-or-none law.
d. Dale’s principle.

a. spontaneous firing rate.

72

The “decision” for a neuron to fire is determined by the:
a. number of EPSPs only.
b. spontaneous firing rate.
c. number of IPSPs only.
d. ratio of EPSPs to IPSPs.

d. ratio of EPSPs to IPSPs.

73

The "spontaneous firing rate" of a neuron refers to:
a. its resting potential.
b. its rate of energy consumption.
c. its rate of producing action potentials even when it is not stimulated.
d. the velocity of its action potentials under normal conditions.

c. its rate of producing action potentials even when it is not stimulated.

74

Which of the following is TRUE about the spontaneous firing rates of neurons?
a. EPSPs increase the frequency.
b. EPSPs decrease the frequency.
c. IPSPs increase the frequency.
d. One EPSP equals the effect of two IPSPs.

a. EPSPs increase the frequency.

75

What determines whether a neuron has an action potential?
a. only the number of EPSPs impinging on an axon
b. only the number of IPSPs impinging on the dendrites
c. the combined effects of EPSPs and IPSPs
d. summation effects of IPSPs

c. the combined effects of EPSPs and IPSPs

76

Which one of Sherrington's inferences about the synapse was WRONG?
a. Transmission at a synapse is slower than transmission of impulses along an axon.
b. Transmission at the synapse is primarily an electrical process.
c. Synapses can be either excitatory or inhibitory.
d. Synapses make spatial summation and temporal summation possible.

b. Transmission at the synapse is primarily an electrical process.

77

What was the first evidence reported by T. R. Elliott suggesting that synapses operate chemically?
a. Adrenaline mimics the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system.
b. Adrenaline decreases heart rate.
c. Adrenaline produces a hormone which decreases heart rate.
d. Adrenaline mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system.

d. Adrenaline mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system.

78

Loewi demonstrated that synapses operate by the release of chemicals. He did this by:
a. applying adrenaline directly to the heart muscle.
b. collecting fluid from a stimulated frog's heart, transferring it to another frog's heart, and measuring that heart rate.
c. measuring the speed of a dog's reflexes while the dog was under the influence of various drugs.
d. applying an extract of marijuana in eye drops and discovering that it dilated the pupils.

b. collecting fluid from a stimulated frog's heart, transferring it to another frog's heart, and measuring that heart rate.

79

The research that firmly established synaptic communication as chemical was:
a. Elliot's adrenaline mimicking sympathetic activation.
b. Loewi's transfer of fluid from stimulated frog hearts.
c. Sherrington's study of reflexes.
d. Eccles's measurement of IPSPs.

b. Loewi's transfer of fluid from stimulated frog hearts.

80

After one frog's heart has been stimulated, an extract of fluid from that heart can make a second frog's heart beat faster. What conclusion did Otto Loewi draw from these results?
a. Transmission at synapses is a chemical event.
b. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are antagonistic.
c. Transmission at heart muscle synapses is electrical.
d. Hormones facilitate the actions of the nervous system.

a. Transmission at synapses is a chemical event.

81

The correct sequence of chemical events at a synapse is:
a. reuptake, release, transport, synthesis
b. synthesis, transport, release, reuptake
c. transport, release, reuptake, synthesis
d. recycle, reuse, release, return

b. synthesis, transport, release, reuptake

82

____ are a category of chemicals including adenosine and several of its derivatives.
a. Neuropeptides
b. Acetylcholine
c. Monoamines
d. Purines

d. Purines

83

What is the most unusual thing about the neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO)?
a. It is found only in sensory neurons.
b. It is both excitatory and inhibitory.
c. It is normally a poisonous gas.
d. It is also known as "laughing gas."

c. It is normally a poisonous gas.

84

Nitric oxide's value is that it:
a. increases blood flow to certain areas of the brain.
b. restricts blood flow to certain areas of the brain.
c. increases growth of microglia.
d. decreases growth of microglia.

a. increases blood flow to certain areas of the brain.

85

Which of the following neurotransmitters is released by active neurons to dilate the blood vessels and increase blood flow?
a. endorphins
b. glycine
c. nitric oxide
d. acetylcholine

c. nitric oxide

86

In addition to influencing other neurons, ____ dilates the nearby blood vessels, thereby increasing blood flow to that area of the brain.
a. endorphins
b. glycine
c. nitric oxide
d. acetylcholine

c. nitric oxide

87

What provides the building blocks for synthesizing all neurotransmitters?
a. substances found in the diet
b. breakdown products of DNA
c. breakdown products formed from other transmitters
d. methane and ethanol

a. substances found in the diet

88

The basic building blocks for the majority of neurotransmitters are:
a. amino acids.
b. nitric oxide.
c. sugars.
d. carbohydrates.

a. amino acids.

89

All of the following are catecholamines EXCEPT:
a. dopamine.
b. serotonin.
c. norepinephrine.
d. epinephrine.

b. serotonin.

90

Which of the following is NOT a catecholamine?
a. Dopamine
b. Epinephrine
c. Norepinephrine
d. Serotonin

d. Serotonin

91

The catecholamines include:
a. epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
b. epinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.
c. dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine.
d. epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

d. epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

92

A new drug is discovered that affects the activity of enzymes. Which of the following stages of synaptic transmission is most likely to be affected?
a. Synthesis
b. Diffusion
c. action potential
d. Release

a. Synthesis

93

What makes nitric oxide unique among neurotransmitters?
a. It is released before the action potential occurs.
b. It is taken back up into the presynaptic neuron.
c. It is a gas.
d. It is composed of amino acids.

c. It is a gas.

94

What do dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine share in common?
a. They all affect the same receptors.
b. They are all synthesized from the same amino acids.
c. They are all released by the same neurons.
d. They all are gases.

b. They are all synthesized from the same amino acids.

95

Avoiding foods with lecithin, such as eggs and peanuts, would affect which neurotransmitter level the most?
a. acetylcholine
b. serotonin
c. GABA
d. endorphin

a. acetylcholine

96

The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor to which neurotransmitter?
a. dopamine
b. endorphin
c. serotonin
d. nitric oxide

c. serotonin

97

After a meal that was rich in the amino acid tryptophan, which neurotransmitter level would be increased the most?
a. dopamine
b. endorphin
c. serotonin
d. nitric oxide

c. serotonin

98

If you eat a food containing tryptophan, what can you consume with it to increase its entry to the brain?
a. phenylalanine
b. carbohydrates
c. fats
d. thiamine

b. carbohydrates

99

Dopamine and norepinephrine are classified as:
a. second messengers.
b. purines.
c. proteins.
d. catecholamines.

d. catecholamines.

100

Insulin increases the entry of tryptophan into the brain by:
a. weakening the blood-brain barrier.
b. converting tryptophan into a compound that more easily enters the brain.
c. increasing metabolic activity only in those areas of the brain that use tryptophan.
d. causing certain competing amino acids to enter other cells, outside the brain.

d. causing certain competing amino acids to enter other cells, outside the brain.

101

Acetylcholine is synthesized in the:
a. postsynaptic terminal.
b. presynaptic terminal.
c. cell body.
d. dendrites.

b. presynaptic terminal.

102

The presynaptic terminal stores high concentrations of neurotransmitter molecules in:
a. axons
b. vesicles
c. peptides
d. dendrites

b. vesicles

103

Large neurotransmitters are synthesized in the:
a. postsynaptic terminal.
b. presynaptic terminal.
c. cell body.
d. dendrites.

c. cell body.

104

Although slower than an action potential, synaptic transmission is still relatively fast because:
a. the synaptic cleft is very narrow.
b. sodium ions are transported quickly.
c. neurotransmitters diffuse faster than electricity.
d. EPSPs travel faster than IPSPs.

a. the synaptic cleft is very narrow.

105

Vesicles are located:
a. in postsynaptic terminals.
b. in dendrites.
c. in presynaptic terminals.
d. outside of the neuron in the extracellular fluid.

c. in presynaptic terminals.

106

The tiny packets that contain neurotransmitters in the presynaptic neuron are called:
a. vesicles.
b. bags.
c. sacs.
d. terminals.

a. vesicles.

107

High concentrations of all neurotransmitters, except for NO, are stored in the:
a. presynaptic terminals.
b. postsynaptic terminals.
c. axon.
d. cell body.

a. presynaptic terminals.

108

When an action potential reaches the end of an axon, it evokes the release of neurotransmitters by opening ____ channels in the axon terminal.
a. chloride
b. bicarbonate
c. calcium
d. oxygen

c. calcium

109

When an action potential reaches the end of an axon, the depolarization causes what ionic movement in the presynaptic cell?
a. sodium out of the cell
b. lithium out of the cell
c. iron into the cell
d. calcium into the cell

d. calcium into the cell

110

An action potential causes the release of neurotransmitters by:
a. blocking potassium pores in the membrane.
b. opening chloride pores in the membrane.
c. blocking iron pores in the membrane.
d. opening calcium pores in the membrane.

d. opening calcium pores in the membrane.

111

The release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic terminal is most dependent on the influx of what ion?
a. sodium
b. potassium
c. chloride
d. calcium

d. calcium

112

The neuron excretes neurotransmitter through its membrane by a process called:
a. Dale's principle.
b. exocytosis.
c. endocytosis.
d. voltage-dependent flow.

b. exocytosis.

113

Exocytosis is the process by which neurotransmitters are:
a. excreted into the synaptic cleft.
b. synthesized.
c. destroyed.
d. secreted into synaptic vesicles.

a. excreted into the synaptic cleft.

114

Given a repetitive series of action potentials in a given neuron, we can expect that:
a. each action potential will release the same amount of neurotransmitter.
b. later action potentials in a series will release more neurotransmitter than the first.
c. many action potentials will fail to release any neurotransmitters at all.
d. some action potentials will release one chemical as the neurotransmitter, and others will release other chemicals.

c. many action potentials will fail to release any neurotransmitters at all.

115

What is the synaptic cleft?
a. the gap between the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neuron
b. a packet that stores neurotransmitter molecules
c. a subthreshold depolarization
d. the storage location for calcium ions

a. the gap between the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neuron

116

What happens when a neurotransmitter is released by a presynaptic cell?
a. It causes calcium to rush into the presynaptic neuron.
b. It causes calcium to rush into the postsynaptic neuron.
c. The neurotransmitter passively spreads across the synaptic cleft.
d. The neurotransmitter is actively transported across the synaptic cleft.

c. The neurotransmitter passively spreads across the synaptic cleft.

117

In general, a single neuron releases ____ neurotransmitter(s) and can respond to ____ neurotransmitter(s).
a. one; many
b. dozens of; only one
c. several; only one
d. several; many

d. several; many

118

In most cases, how many neurotransmitters can activate a postsynaptic neuron?
a. only one neurotransmitter
b. any neurotransmitter
c. several transmitters, with different synapses responding to different transmitters
d. several transmitters, which must be received simultaneously

c. several transmitters, with different synapses responding to different transmitters

119

The main advantage of a neuron releasing more than one neurotransmitter is that:
a. if it runs out of one, it has others.
b. it can release different transmitters on different occasions.
c. it can send more complex messages.
d. it can release one from the axon's terminal and one from another location along the axon.

c. it can send more complex messages.

120

What determines the effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic neuron?
a. the speed the action potential traveled down the axon
b. the number of branches of the presynaptic axon
c. the receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
d. the distance between the synapse and the cell body

c. the receptors on the postsynaptic membrane

121

A neurotransmitter receptor is:
a. a protein embedded in the membrane.
b. a channel in the membrane.
c. found only on the soma.
d. activated similarly for all neurotransmitters.

a. a protein embedded in the membrane

122

A receptor can directly open a channel exerting a(n) ____ effect or it can produce slower but longer ____ effects.
a. gated; metabotropic
b. ionotropic; gated
c. metabotropic; ionotropic
d. ionotropic; metabotropic

d. ionotropic; metabotropic

123

What does it mean to say that acetylcholine exerts ionotropic effects?
a. It opens gates for a particular ion.
b. It alters the permeability of the presynaptic neuron.
c. It increases the concentration of ions within the vesicles.
d. It changes the electrical charge of sodium ions from positive to negative.

a. It opens gates for a particular ion.

124

Which of the following actions is most likely to be dependent on ionotropic effects?
a. gradual sleepiness
b. hormone release
c. hunger
d. rapid muscle contraction

d. rapid muscle contraction

125

Glutamate opens sodium gates, enabling sodium ions to enter the postsynaptic cell. What is this effect called?
a. metabotropic
b. ionotropic
c. modulatory
d. orthodromic

b. ionotropic

126

The neurotransmitter GABA exerts ____ effects, and its effects are almost always ____.
a. ionotropic; excitatory
b. ionotropic; inhibitory
c. metabotropic; excitatory
d. metabotropic; inhibitory

b. ionotropic; inhibitory

127

Ionotropic effects:
a. depolarize the postsynaptic membrane.
b. hyperpolarize the postsynaptic membrane.
c. may depolarize or hyperpolarize the postsynaptic membrane.
d. enhance the reabsorption of neurotransmitters.

c. may depolarize or hyperpolarize the postsynaptic membrane.

128

Ionotropic effects are characterized by:
a. rapid, short-lived effects.
b. rapid, long lasting effects.
c. excitatory only.
d. inhibitory only.

a. rapid, short-lived effects.

129

Which of the following characterizes ionotropic effects?
a. rapid, short-lived effects
b. rapid, long lasting effects
c. excitatory only
d. inhibitory only

a. rapid, short-lived effects

130

Few pianists can play quickly enough to play the Minute Waltz in a minute. The finger movements that are required are likely to involve which type of neurotransmitter effects?
a. ionotropic effects
b. metabotropic effects
c. second messenger effects
d. neuromodulator effects

a. ionotropic effects

131

Compared to ionotropic effects, metabotropic effects are:
a. quicker and briefer.
b. slower and briefer.
c. quicker and longer-lasting.
d. slower and longer-lasting.

d. slower and longer-lasting.

132

Which of the following is more typical of a metabotropic effect than an ionotropic effect?
a. produces inhibitory effects on the postsynaptic cell
b. influences the speed of conduction by the postsynaptic cell
c. produces long-lasting effects on the post-synaptic cell
d. controls sensory processes

c. produces long-lasting effects on the post-synaptic cell

133

Neurotransmitter is to ____ as cyclic AMP is to ____.
a. first messenger, second messenger
b. second messenger, first messenger
c. metabotropic, ionotropic
d. receptor, neuromodulator

a. first messenger, second messenger

134

Which effect is consistently associated with a "second messenger"?
a. ionotropic
b. metabotropic
c. inhibitory
d. excitatory

b. metabotropic

135

Receptor molecules for neurotransmitters that exert metabotropic effects are proteins that bind to ____ outside the membrane, and attach to ____ inside the membrane.
a. calcium; potassium
b. neurotransmitters; nicotine
c. neurotransmitters; G-proteins
d. adenosine; nitric oxide

c. neurotransmitters; G-proteins

136

The second messenger communicates to areas:
a. outside the cleft
b. in the cleft
c. within the cell
d. outside the cell

c. within the cell

137

"Second messengers" carry their messages to:
a. the presynaptic membrane.
b. areas within the postsynaptic cell.
c. areas within the presynaptic cell.
d. the surrounding glia.

b. areas within the postsynaptic cell.

138

A metabotropic synapse, by way of its second messenger, ____.
a. has effects localized to one point on the membrane
b. can influence activity in much of the presynaptic cell
c. can influence activity in much or all of the postsynaptic cell
d. has minimal effect on the postsynaptic cell

c. can influence activity in much or all of the postsynaptic cell

139

Suppose a new neurotransmitter is identified that does not excite or inhibit postsynaptic cells, but affects the release of other neurotransmitters or the sensitivity of postsynaptic cells. This neurotransmitter would most likely be categorized as a(n):
a. neuromodulator.
b. ionotropic modulator.
c. hormone.
d. gas.

a. neuromodulator.

140

Many neurons release neuropeptides mostly from the:
a. vesicles
b. nodes
c. axons
d. dendrites

d. dendrites

141

A hormone is a chemical that is:
a. secreted by a gland to the outside world.
b. conveyed by the blood to other organs, whose activity it influences.
c. capable of activating or inhibiting muscle fibers.
d. a feedback message from the postsynaptic neuron to the presynaptic neuron.

b. conveyed by the blood to other organs, whose activity it influences.

142

A chemical is called a(n) ____ when it flows through the blood to targets throughout the body.
a. hormone
b. neurotransmitter
c. neuromodulator
d. endocrine

a. hormone

143

Hormones exert their effects:
a. similarly to metabotropic neurotransmitters.
b. similarly to ionotropic neurotransmitters.
c. by attaching to special receptors on muscle fibers.
d. by being metabolized by presynaptic cells and thus converted into neurotransmitters.

a. similarly to metabotropic neurotransmitters.

144

The anterior pituitary is composed of:
a. glandular tissue.
b. neural tissue.
c. vaso tissue.
d. lymph tissue.

a. glandular tissue.

145

The anterior pituitary is composed of ____ and the posterior pituitary is composed of ____.
a. glandular tissue; neural tissue
b. neural tissue; glandular tissue
c. neural tissue; neural tissue
d. glandular tissue; glandular tissue

a. glandular tissue; neural tissue

146

Releasing hormones are synthesized in the ____ and released in the ____.
a. anterior pituitary; bloodstream
b. hypothalamus; anterior pituitary
c. hypothalamus; posterior pituitary
d. posterior pituitary; hypothalamus

b. hypothalamus; anterior pituitary

147

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) controls:
a. secretions of the gonads.
b. secretions of the mammary glands.
c. secretions of the thyroid gland.
d. secretions of the adrenal cortex.

d. secretions of the adrenal cortex.

148

What is the function of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase?
a. It synthesizes acetylcholine from the diet.
b. It increases the sensitivity of the postsynaptic cell to acetylcholine.
c. It blocks further release of the transmitter acetylcholine.
d. It breaks acetylcholine down into components for recycling.

d. It breaks acetylcholine down into components for recycling.

149

Suppose you were bitten by a black widow spider whose venom increases the release of acetylcholine from the presynaptic terminal. Which of the following treatments would be most effective?
a. Bite the spider back.
b. Increase the activity of acetylcholinesterase.
c. Decrease reuptake.
d. Increase the activity of COMT.

b. Increase the activity of acetylcholinesterase.

150

What happens to acetylcholine after it attaches to a receptor on the postsynaptic cell?
a. It is broken down into two components.
b. It is reabsorbed intact by the presynaptic cell.
c. The postsynaptic cell metabolizes it as a source of energy.
d. It continues to stimulate the postsynaptic neuron until replaced by another neurotransmitter.

a. It is broken down into two components.

151

What would be the effect of a drug that inhibits the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase?
a. prolonged action of acetylcholine at its synapses
b. decreased duration of action of acetylcholine at its synapses
c. decreased synthesis of acetylcholine by the presynaptic cell
d. increased synthesis of acetylcholine by the presynaptic cell

a. prolonged action of acetylcholine at its synapses

152

After serotonin or one of the catecholamine transmitters stimulates the postsynaptic receptor, most of the transmitter molecules:
a. remain on the receptor until other neurotransmitters replace them.
b. are broken into components while still attached to the postsynaptic cell.
c. are metabolized by the postsynaptic cell as a source of energy.
d. are reabsorbed by the presynaptic cell.

d. are reabsorbed by the presynaptic cell.

153

Reuptake is the absorption of:
a. neurotransmitters by the postsynaptic neuron.
b. neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron.
c. nutrients and waste products by glial cells.
d. neurotransmitters by glial cells.

b. neurotransmitters by the presynaptic neuron.

154

Reuptake is an alternative to which other process?
a. recycling of neurotransmitters
b. enzymatic breakdown of neurotransmitters
c. absorption of neurotransmitter by the postsynaptic neuron
d. re-release of neurotransmitters from postsynaptic neurons

b. enzymatic breakdown of neurotransmitters

155

"Transporter" proteins transport neurotransmitters:
a. back into the presynaptic neuron.
b. across the synapse to the postsynaptic neuron.
c. across the synapse back to the presynaptic neuron.
d. to the appropriate receptor sites.

a. back into the presynaptic neuron.

156

COMT and MAO are:
a. enzymes that convert catecholamines into inactive chemicals.
b. enzymes that make catecholamines.
c. neurotransmitters in the same group as serotonin.
d. the inactive fragments of catecholamines.

a. enzymes that convert catecholamines into inactive chemicals.

157

The primary method for disposal of peptide neurotransmitters is:
a. inactivation by the enzymes MAO and COMT.
b. reuptake by the presynaptic neuron.
c. diffusion.
d. reuptake by the postsynaptic neuron.

c. diffusion.

158

Activation of autoreceptors tends to:
a. increase further neurotransmitter release.
b. stimulate GABA release.
c. increase sodium-potassium pump activity.
d. decrease further neurotransmitter release.

d. decrease further neurotransmitter release.

159

Autoreceptors monitor the:
a. number of action potentials.
b. extracellular sodium concentration.
c. amount of neurotransmitter released.
d. amount of reuptake.

c. amount of neurotransmitter released.

160

The chemicals used as neurotransmitters in humans are found in:
a. no other species.
b. other mammals also, but not in non-mammals.
c. other vertebrates, but not in invertebrates.
d. apparently all or nearly all other species.

d. apparently all or nearly all other species.

161

Our brains respond to plant chemicals because:
a. plants use chemicals similar to neurotransmitters.
b. animals evolved from plants.
c. plants have evolved neuron-like cells.
d. those are the only chemicals that are stable at common environmental temperatures.

a. plants use chemicals similar to neurotransmitters.

162

A drug that mimics or increases the effects of a neurotransmitter is called a(n):
a. agonist.
b. antagonist.
c. stimulant.
d. protagonist.

a. agonist.

163

A drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter is called a(n):
a. agonist.
b. antagonist.
c. depressant.
d. protagonist.

b. antagonist.

164

A drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter is a(n) ____; a drug that mimics or increases the effects is a(n) ____.
a. neuromodulator; synergist
b. agonist; antagonist
c. depressant; stimulant
d. antagonist; agonist

d. antagonist; agonist

165

Which effect would be considered to be antagonistic?
a. blocking the synthesis of neurotransmitters
b. stimulating the release of neurotransmitters
c. blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters
d. interfering with the breakdown of neurotransmitters

a. blocking the synthesis of neurotransmitters

166

Which effect would be considered to be agonistic?
a. blocking the synthesis of neurotransmitters
b. stimulating the release of neurotransmitters
c. blocking the postsynaptic receptors
d. mimicking enzymes that breakdown neurotransmitters

b. stimulating the release of neurotransmitters

167

To say that a drug has an affinity for a particular type of receptor is to imply that the drug:
a. breaks down neurotransmitter chemicals at that receptor site.
b. will always excite the postsynaptic receptor.
c. will always inhibit the postsynaptic receptor.
d. binds to that receptor.

d. binds to that receptor.

168

The key into a lock analogy best describes:
a. a drug’s efficacy
b. a drug’s affinity for a receptor
c. breakdown at a receptor site
d. a drug’s reuptake

b. a drug’s affinity for a receptor

169

If a drug binds to a particular receptor, it is said to:
a. increase the synthesis of the neurotransmitter used at that receptor.
b. decrease the synthesis of the neurotransmitter used at that receptor.
c. stimulate breakdown at that receptor.
d. have an affinity for that type of receptor.

d. have an affinity for that type of receptor.

170

With respect to drug effects, "efficacy" means the tendency of a drug to:
a. have inhibitory effects.
b. have excitatory effects.
c. attach to a receptor.
d. activate a receptor.

d. activate a receptor.

171

What is one factor in determining whether a drug that readily attaches to a receptor will have agonistic or antagonistic effects?
a. its affinity for the receptor
b. its efficacy
c. the neurotransmitter than normally attaches to that receptor
d. its electrical charge

b. its efficacy

172

If a drug has high affinity and low efficacy, what effect does it have on the postsynaptic neuron?
a. antagonistic
b. agonistic
c. proactive
d. destructive

a. antagonistic

173

If a drug has high affinity and high efficacy, what effect does it have on the postsynaptic neuron?
a. antagonistic
b. agonistic
c. proactive
d. destructive

b. agonistic

174

The effectiveness and side-effects of a drug vary from one person to the next. One reason for this is that:
a. most drugs are chemically unstable, resulting in unpredictable effects.
b. most drugs interact with the diet to produce variable effects.
c. each drug tends to affect more than one kind of synapse.
d. drugs will break down neurotransmitters into different component parts in different people.

c. each drug tends to affect more than one kind of synapse.

175

Why do the effects of certain transmitters, such as serotonin, vary from one synapse to another?
a. The brain releases different forms of serotonin at different synapses.
b. It depends whether it is an original serotonin molecule or one that has been recycled.
c. The width of the synaptic cleft varies from one synapse to another.
d. There are several kinds of postsynaptic receptors for serotonin.

d. There are several kinds of postsynaptic receptors for serotonin.

176

Affinity refers to a drug’s ____, while efficacy refers to a drug’s ____.
a. concentration; effectiveness
b. function; structure
c. strength of binding to the receptor; tendency to activate the receptor
d. tendency to activate the receptor; strength of binding to the receptor

c. strength of binding to the receptor; tendency to activate the receptor

177

The brain area most often linked to drug addiction is the:
a. nucleus accumbens.
b. whole limbic system.
c. frontal lobes.
d. brain stem.

a. nucleus accumbens.

178

Which of the following activities does NOT stimulate dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens?
a. gambling
b. sexual excitement
c. video games
d. running

d. running

179

Which neurotransmitter has been repeatedly connected with addictive drugs?
a. epinephrine
b. acetylcholine
c. serotonin
d. dopamine

d. dopamine

180

Most habit-forming drugs activate which type of synapse?
a. acetylcholine
b. opiate
c. GABA
d. dopamine

d. dopamine

181

A drug that produces excitement, alertness, elevated mood, and decreased fatigue is referred to as a:
a. stimulant.
b. depressant.
c. hallucinogen.
d. tranquilizer.

a. stimulant.

182

The presynaptic terminal ordinarily reabsorbs released dopamine through a protein called a:
a. dopamine reabsorber
b. dopamine releaser
c. dopamine transporter
d. dopamine agonist

c. dopamine transporter

183

At the synapse, amphetamine:
a. blocks the breakdown of dopamine.
b. increases the release of dopamine from the presynaptic terminal.
c. increases the sensitivity of dopamine receptors.
d. decreases the sensitivity of dopamine receptors.

b. increases the release of dopamine from the presynaptic terminal.

184

At the synapse, amphetamine:
a. blocks the breakdown of dopamine.
b. decreases the release of dopamine from the presynaptic terminal.
c. inhibits the dopamine transporter.
d. decreases the sensitivity of dopamine receptors.

c. inhibits the dopamine transporter.

185

At the synapse, cocaine:
a. increases the synthesis of dopamine.
b. blocks the breakdown of dopamine.
c. accelerates the breakdown of dopamine.
d. blocks the reuptake of dopamine.

d. blocks the reuptake of dopamine.

186

Why do cocaine and amphetamine produce similar effects?
a. Both increase the activity of the sodium-potassium pump.
b. Both increase the presence of dopamine in the synapses.
c. Both cause a weakening of the blood-brain barrier.
d. The brain converts both of them into acetylcholine.

b. Both increase the presence of dopamine in the synapses.

187

The effect of Ritalin (methylphenidate) on the synapse is most similar to that of:
a. cocaine.
b. GABA.
c. prozac.
d. alcohol.

a. cocaine.

188

The main difference between methylphenidate (Ritalin), when taken as a medication for attention deficit disorder, and cocaine, when taken as a drug of abuse, is that methylphenidate:
a. inhibits receptors that cocaine excites.
b. produces the same effects more slowly.
c. attaches to a different set of receptors.
d. increases metabolic rate whereas cocaine decreases it.

b. produces the same effects more slowly.

189

At high doses, MDMA:
a. destroys axons that release acetylcholine.
b. destroys axons that release serotonin.
c. stimulates axons that release acetylcholine.
d. destroys axons in humans, but not in laboratory rats.

b. destroys axons that release serotonin.

190

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is also known as?
a. ecstasy
b. crack
c. angel dust
d. ganja

a. ecstasy

191

The stimulant effects of MDMA are likely due to actions at ____ synapses, while the hallucinogenic effects are likely due to actions at ____ synapses.
a. dopamine, nitric oxide
b. neuropeptide Y, serotonin
c. dopamine, serotonin
d. serotonin, dopamine

c. dopamine, serotonin

192

Nicotine directly stimulates receptors in the central nervous system and at nerve-muscle junctions. These nicotinic receptors are also receptors for which neurotransmitter?
a. glutamate
b. dopamine
c. serotonin
d. acetylcholine

d. acetylcholine

193

Cocaine is to ____ as nicotine is to ____.
a. dopamine, acetylcholine
b. acetylcholine, dopamine
c. dopamine, serotonin
d. norepinephrine, acetylcholine

a. dopamine, acetylcholine

194

A drug that relaxes a person and makes them less sensitive to pain is most likely a(n):
a. opiate.
b. hallucinogen.
c. stimulant.
d. cannabinoid.

a. opiate.

195

Pert and Snyder's discovery that opiates bind with certain receptors led to what other discovery?
a. the functions of inhibitory synapses
b. the endogenous chemicals that bind with those receptors
c. other classes of receptors with which opiates will bind
d. more effective ways of manufacturing the drugs

b. the endogenous chemicals that bind with those receptors

196

Opiate drugs bind to receptors in the brain for:
a. endorphins.
b. catecholamines.
c. indolamines.
d. monoamines.

a. endorphins.

197

What effect do opiate drugs have on dopamine?
a. They increase the synthesis of dopamine.
b. They directly increase the release of dopamine.
c. They indirectly increase the release of dopamine by blocking transmitters that normally block dopamine.
d. They mimic dopamine.

c. They indirectly increase the release of dopamine by blocking transmitters that normally block dopamine.

198

When opiates block the activity of the locus coeruleus, this results in:
a. hallucinations.
b. sleep.
c. increased arousal.
d. decreased fear and memory.

d. decreased fear and memory.

199

Cannabinoids are a class of chemicals that include:
a. nicotine.
b. cocaine.
c. morphine.
d. marijuana.

d. marijuana.

200

A certain drug user experiences intensified sensations and the illusion that time is passing slowly. He also experiences problems with attention and memory. These symptoms are most characteristic of the use of which drug?
a. LSD
b. cocaine
c. nicotine
d. marijuana

d. marijuana

201

Which is MORE characteristic of marijuana users than of cocaine users?
a. sudden "crash" several hours after taking the drug
b. impairments of attention and memory
c. increased sensitivity to the drug's effects
d. high risk of overdose on the drug

b. impairments of attention and memory

202

Why are the withdrawal effects of marijuana usually less intense than other drugs?
a. Marijuana affects only the brain stem.
b. Marijuana leaves the body slowly.
c. Marijuana affects only presynaptic neurons.
d. The body compensates by producing more dopamine.

b. Marijuana leaves the body slowly.

203

Why is marijuana unlikely to interfere with breathing or heart rate?
a. Marijuana cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.
b. It is so slow acting that the brain can compensate.
c. Receptors for marijuana in those brain areas are absent.
d. Marijuana dissolves quickly and leaves the body quickly.

c. Receptors for marijuana in those brain areas are absent.

204

Cannabinoid receptors are located on the:
a. the postsynaptic neuron
b. the presynaptic neuron
c. the cell body
d. axon

b. the presynaptic neuron

205

Anandamide and 2-AG are believed to be the naturally occurring neurotransmitters that bind to the same receptors as which drug?
a. heroin
b. cocaine
c. alcohol
d. marijuana

d. marijuana

206

2-AG is believed to be an endogenous chemical that:
a. increases dopamine release.
b. produces serotonin.
c. binds to cannabinoid receptors.
d. is responsible for producing nausea.

c. binds to cannabinoid receptors.

207

Uniquely, endogenous cannabinoid receptors are located:
a. on the presynaptic neuron.
b. on the cell body.
c. on the dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron.
d. inside the cell membrane.

a. on the presynaptic neuron.

208

Endogenous cannabinoids act to:
a. decrease neurotransmitter release from presynaptic neurons.
b. block reuptake of neurotransmitter.
c. stimulate release of dopamine.
d. decrease synthesis of neurotransmitter.

a. decrease neurotransmitter release from presynaptic neurons.

209

The effect of cannabinoids to reduce nausea is most likely mediated by ____ receptors.
a. dopamine
b. serotonin
c. opiate
d. acetylcholine

b. serotonin

210

Cannabinoid chemicals affect synapses by:
a. blocking the activity of second messengers.
b. decreasing the release of both glutamate and GABA.
c. stimulating endorphin receptors.
d. decreasing the synthesis of dopamine and norepinephrine.

b. decreasing the release of both glutamate and GABA.

211

Which of the following is NOT a likely effect of using marijuana?
a. memory loss
b. decreased nausea
c. reduced risk of Parkinson's disease
d. suppressed appetite

c. reduced risk of Parkinson's disease

212

Drugs that grossly distort perception are known as:
a. hallucinogens.
b. depressants.
c. opiates.
d. stimulants.

a. hallucinogens.

213

Which drugs most closely resemble the neurotransmitter serotonin?
a. hallucinogens
b. cannabinoids
c. opiates
d. stimulants

a. hallucinogens

214

LSD and other hallucinogenic drugs resemble which neurotransmitter?
a. norepinephrine
b. dopamine
c. serotonin
d. acetylcholine

c. serotonin

215

LSD and other hallucinogenic drugs probably exert their effects most directly on what part of the neuron?
a. the axon terminals
b. the postsynaptic receptors
c. the reuptake protein channels
d. the sodium-potassium pump

b. the postsynaptic receptors

216

A common drug to treat alcoholism that produces illness after consuming alcohol is:
a. antabuse
b. NMDA
c. COMT
d. anandamide

a. antabuse