Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (236):
1

T/F Neurons that directly convey messages to muscles and glands are part of the central nervous system.

False

2

T/F If you fell asleep on a sunny beach lying on your stomach, then your dorsal side would likely be sunburned.

True

3

T/F The elbow is more distal to the shoulder than the hand.

False

4

T/F Cell bodies of motor neurons are located outside of the spinal cord.

False

5

T/F A tract in the spinal cord would most likely be found in the white matter.

True

6

T/F The parasympathetic nervous system activates the "fight or flight" response.

False

7

T/F The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems generally have opposing actions on the major internal organs.

True

8

T/F Ganglia in the parasympathetic system are arranged in a chain near the spinal cord.

False

9

T/F Parasympathetic neurons use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter.

True

10

T/F The hindbrain consists of the medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum.

True

11

T/F Damage to the medulla is frequently fatal.

True

12

T/F Some cranial nerves include both sensory and motor components.

True

13

T/F Cranial Nerve II is called the optic nerve

True

14

T/F The function of the cerebellum is limited to balance and coordination.

False

15

T/F Substantia nigra gives rise to the dopamine-containing pathway that facilitates readiness for movement.

True

16

T/F The limbic system is important for motivation and emotional behaviors.

True

17

T/F Although relatively small, the hypothalamus is very important for a large range of motivated behaviors.

True

18

T/F Deterioration of the basal ganglia may lead to Parkinson’s disease.

True

19

T/F The choroid plexus reabsorbs the cerebrospinal fluid.

False

20

T/F Cerebrospinal fluid provides the major cushion for the brain.

True

21

T/F Hydrocephalus is caused by inflammation of the meninges.

False

22

T/F Damage to the right hemisphere of the cortex would most likely cause loss of sensory or motor control on the left side of the body.

True

23

T/F The human cerebral cortex contains up to eight distinct layers of cell bodies.

False

24

T/F Damage to the striate cortex of the right hemisphere causes blindness in the left visual field.

True

25

T/F The parietal lobe lies between the occipital lobe and the central sulcus.

True

26

T/F The prefrontal cortex is important for working memory.

True

27

T/F Many cells in association areas of the brain respond to more than one sensory modality.

False

28

T/F The “binding problem” refers to the question of how various brain regions produce a single perception of a single object.

True

29

T/F The primary function of the cerebral cortex appears to be elaboration of sensory material.

True

30

T/F Bumps and depressions in the skull are closely related to how well-developed the underlying brain areas are.

False

31

T/F Electroencephalography records neural signals generated by the activity of populations of neurons.

True

32

T/F Humans have a higher brain-to-body ratio than all other species.

False

33

What are the two parts of the central nervous system?
a. autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system
b. cerebrum and cerebellum
c. sympathetic division and parasympathetic division
d. brain and spinal cord

d. brain and spinal cord

34

The central nervous system is composed of:
a. the brain and spinal cord.
b. all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.
c. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
d. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

a. the brain and spinal cord.

35

Which division of the nervous system is composed of the autonomic and somatic nervous systems?
a. Central
b. Parasympathetic
c. Peripheral
d. Sympathetic

c. Peripheral

36

Together, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system make up the _____ nervous system.
a. peripheral
b. central
c. sympathetic
d. dorsal

a. peripheral

37

Which division of the nervous system consists of neurons bringing messages from the senses to the central nervous system?
a. Autonomic
b. Sympathetic
c. Somatic
d. Parasympathetic

c. Somatic

38

The somatic division of the nervous system carries signals from the _____ to the _____.
a. senses; central nervous system
b. organs; autonomic nervous system
c. organs; sympathetic nervous system
d. senses; peripheral nervous system

d. senses; peripheral nervous system

39

Nerves from the central nervous system convey information to the muscles and glands by way of the:
a. autonomic nervous system.
b. somatic nervous system.
c. sympathetic nervous system.
d. parasympathetic nervous system.

b. somatic nervous system.

40

When someone tickles you, the tickling sensation will be carried by neurons that are part of the _____ nervous system.
a. central
b. parasympathetic
c. somatic
d. autonomic

c. somatic

41

An axon in your hand causes contraction of a muscle fiber in your finger as you write. This neuron belongs to which branch of the nervous system?
a. Central
b. Somatic
c. Sympathetic
d. Parasympathetic

b. Somatic

42

Which division of the nervous system consists of neurons that control the heart, intestines, and other organs?
a. Internal
b. Afferent
c. Somatic
d. Autonomic

d. Autonomic

43

Which plane shows brain structures as they would be seen from the front?
a. Coronal
b. Sagittal
c. Horizontal
d. Transverse

a. Coronal

44

Which plane shows brain structures as they would be seen from above?
a. Coronal
b. Sagittal
c. Horizontal
d. Commuter

c. Horizontal

45

Which plane shows brain structures as they would be seen from the side?
a. Coronal
b. Sagittal
c. Horizontal
d. Commuter

b. Sagittal

46

Which of the following means "toward the side, away from the midline"?
a. Lateral
b. Medial
c. Proximal
d. Ventral

a. Lateral

47

Which of the following means "toward the back"?
a. Dorsal
b. Medial
c. Proximal
d. Ventral

a. Dorsal

48

In anatomy, the opposite of medial is:
a. lateral.
b. dorsal.
c. ventral.
d. rostral.

a. lateral.

49

If one structure is on the left side of the body and another is on the right, they are said to be ____ to each other.
a. medial
b. lateral
c. ipsilateral
d. contralateral

d. contralateral

50

What is the name given to a cluster of neurons inside the CNS?
a. Lamina
b. Column
c. Nucleus
d. Ganglion

c. Nucleus

51

What is the name given to a cluster of neurons outside the CNS?
a. Lamina
b. Column
c. Tract
d. Ganglion

d. Ganglion

52

The basal ganglia are a related cluster of cell bodies in the central nervous system. Technically, the basal ganglia should have been name the basal:
a. tract.
b. lamina.
c. gyrus.
d. nuclei.

d. nuclei.

53

The spinal cord communicates with:
a. sense organs and muscles below the level of the head.
b. all sense organs and muscles in the human body.
c. dorsal root ganglia only.
d. ventral root ganglia only.

a. sense organs and muscles below the level of the head.

54

The cell bodies of sensory neurons that are in clusters of neurons outside the spinal cord are called:
a. sensory nuclei
b. sensory clusters
c. ventral root ganglia
d. dorsal root ganglia

d. dorsal root ganglia

55

According to the Bell-Magendie law:
a. ventral roots of the spinal cord carry sensory information.
b. dorsal roots of the spinal cord carry motor information.
c. ventral and dorsal roots both carry sensory and motor information.
d. ventral roots carry motor information while dorsal roots carry sensory information.

d. ventral roots carry motor information while dorsal roots carry sensory information.

56

After damage to the dorsal roots of the spinal cord, an individual will suffer what kind of loss?
a. Sensation from the affected body area
b. Control of the peripheral muscles in the affected body area
c. Control of organs in the affected body area
d. Control of the muscles on the opposite side of the body

a. Sensation from the affected body area

57

After damage to the ventral roots of the spinal cord, an individual will suffer what kind of loss?
a. Sensation from the affected body area
b. Control of the peripheral muscles in the affected body area
c. Control of organs in the affected body area
d. Control of the muscles on the opposite side of the body

b. Control of the peripheral muscles in the affected body area

58

If the ipsilateral dorsal and ventral roots were cut, which of the following would be true?
a. Sensation would be lost on one side, and motor control on the other.
b. Sensation would be lost on both sides.
c. Motor control would be lost on both sides.
d. Sensation and motor control would be lost on one side.

d. Sensation and motor control would be lost on one side.

59

Cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in the:
a. spinal cord.
b. dorsal root ganglia.
c. white matter.
d. ventral roots.

b. dorsal root ganglia.

60

Suppose a virus damaged only the dorsal roots of the spinal cord, but not the ventral roots. What would happen to the sensory and motor abilities of the affected area?
a. Loss of sensation, but preserved motor control
b. Loss of both sensation and motor control
c. Loss of motor control, but preserved sensation
d. Unaffected sensation and motor control

a. Loss of sensation, but preserved motor control

61

Axons of motor neurons would most likely be found in which of the following?
a. Gray matter
b. White matter
c. Dorsal roots
d. Tracts

b. White matter

62

Cell bodies of motor neurons would most likely be found in which of the following?
a. Gray matter
b. White matter
c. Dorsal roots
d. Tracts

a. Gray matter

63

Where would you find the dorsal root ganglia?
a. At the base of the brain
b. In the gray matter of the spinal cord
c. In the white matter of the spinal cord
d. Outside, but near, the spinal cord

d. Outside, but near, the spinal cord

64

A cross section of the spinal cord indicates that gray matter is:
a. densely packed with myelinated axons.
b. composed mostly of unmyelinated axons.
c. densely packed with cell bodies and dendrites.
d. composed only of dendrites.

c. densely packed with cell bodies and dendrites.

65

In the spinal cord, white matter is comprised mostly of _____, while gray matter is mostly _____.
a. cell bodies; myelinated axons
b. dendrites; myelinated axons
c. myelinated axons; cell bodies
d. cell bodies; dendrites

c. myelinated axons; cell bodies

66

Gray matter in the brain and spinal cord is mainly composed of what structures?
a. cell bodies and dendrites
b. myelinated axons
c. unmyelinated axons
d. ganglia

a. cell bodies and dendrites

67

If the spinal cord is cut at a given segment, the brain loses sensation at:
a. that segment only.
b. that segment and all segments above it.
c. that segment and all segments below it.
d. all other segments.

c. that segment and all segments below it.

68

The autonomic nervous system:
a. only receives information from the heart, intestines, and other organs.
b. only sends information to the heart, intestines, and other organs.
c. receives and sends information to the heart, intestines, and other organs.
d. conveys messages from the sense organs to the central nervous system.

c. receives and sends information to the heart, intestines, and other organs.

69

Which part of the nervous system prepares the body for "fight or flight" activities?
a. Sympathetic
b. Somatic
c. Parasympathetic
d. Peripheral

a. Sympathetic

70

Erection of the hairs, known in humans as "goose bumps," is caused by activation of which branch of the nervous system?
a. Parasympathetic
b. Sympathetic
c. Central
d. Peripheral

b. Sympathetic

71

The sweat glands, adrenal glands, and muscles that constrict blood vessels have input from only the ____ nervous system.
a. sympathetic
b. parasympathetic
c. central
d. dorsal root

a. sympathetic

72

Seeing a snake come out of the drain in the bathtub might increase your heart rate, dilate your pupils, cause you to sweat, and raise the hair on your neck. These responses are due to the activity of the _____ nervous system.
a. sympathetic
b. parasympathetic
c. somatic
d. motor

a. sympathetic

73

Which activity is increased by the sympathetic nervous system?
a. Salivation
b. Heart rate
c. Digestive activity
d. Body temperature

b. Heart rate

74

You are walking after dark. A sudden noise frightens you. Your heart pounds, your pulse races, and your breathing rate increases. These responses are due to your:
a. parasympathetic nervous system.
b. sympathetic nervous system.
c. somatic nervous system.
d. immune system.

b. sympathetic nervous system.

75

Which of the following would be the most likely effect of taking a drug that blocks sympathetic nervous system activity?
a. Increased blood pressure
b. Sweating
c. Slowed digestion
d. Decreased heart rate

d. Decreased heart rate

76

Sympathetic ganglia:
a. are located inside the spinal cord.
b. act more independently than do parasympathetic ganglia.
c. are closely linked and often act as a single system.
d. have short postganglionic fibers extending to internal organs.

c. are closely linked and often act as a single system.

77

What is unique about the autonomic activity of the sweat glands?
a. They receive only parasympathetic input.
b. They receive only sympathetic input.
c. They only work when it's hot outside.
d. Both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system increase sweating.

b. They receive only sympathetic input.

78

What, generally, is the relationship between the activity of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems?
a. The sympathetic controls internal organs while the parasympathetic controls peripheral organs.
b. The sympathetic usually has specific, localized effects, while the parasympathetic has broad effects.
c. They usually have opposite effects on the same organ.
d. The sympathetic is involved in voluntary behavior, while the parasympathetic is involved in involuntary behavior.

c. They usually have opposite effects on the same organ.

79

Digestive activity is increased by the activation of which branch of the autonomic nervous system?
a. The parasympathetic
b. The sympathetic
c. Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic
d. Neither the parasympathetic nor the sympathetic

a. The parasympathetic

80

Sympathetic is to ____ as parasympathetic is to ____.
a. central nervous system; peripheral nervous system
b. voluntary behavior; involuntary behavior
c. arousal; relaxation
d. neurotransmitters; hormones

c. arousal; relaxation

81

One principle of the autonomic nervous system is the concept of ____.
a. synergy
b. dual innervation
c. a relay center
d. a limbic system

b. dual innervation

82

Which kinds of activities are produced from activation of the parasympathetic nervous system?
a. fight-or-flight
b. increased heart rate and blood pressure
c. a decrease in digestion
d. calmness and relaxation

d. calmness and relaxation

83

The parasympathetic nervous system has:
a. long preganglionic and long postganglionic axons.
b. long preganglionic and short postganglionic axons.
c. short preganglionic and short postganglionic axons.
d. short preganglionic and long postganglionic axons.

b. long preganglionic and short postganglionic axons.

84

In the parasympathetic nervous system, the preganglionic fibers are _____, and the postganglionic fibers are _____.
a. long, long
b. long, short
c. short, long
d. short, short

b. long, short

85

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the sympathetic system?
a. Is found in the thoracic and lumbar cord
b. Has long post-ganglionic fibers
c. Releases ACh at the ganglion
d. Releases DA at the ganglion

d. Releases DA at the ganglion

86

Which neurotransmitter is used by the parasympathetic nervous system?
a. Dopamine
b. Serotonin
c. Acetylcholine
d. Norepinephrine

c. Acetylcholine

87

Acetylcholine is the only neurotransmitter released by:
a. the sympathetic nervous system's postganglionic synapses.
b. the parasympathetic nervous system's postganglionic axons.
c. intrinsic neurons in the spinal cord.
d. intrinsic neurons of the hippocampus.

b. the parasympathetic nervous system's postganglionic axons.

88

Which neurotransmitter is most often used by postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic nervous system?
a. Dopamine
b. Serotonin
c. Acetylcholine
d. Norepinephrine

d. Norepinephrine

89

Most of the postganglionic synapses of the sympathetic nervous system use:
a. GABA.
b. norepinephrine.
c. acetylcholine.
d. serotonin.

b. norepinephrine.

90

Sympathetic is to ____ as parasympathetic is to ____.
a. serotonin; dopamine
b. dopamine; serotonin
c. acetylcholine; norepinephrine
d. norepinephrine; acetylcholine

d. norepinephrine; acetylcholine

91

One way that over-the-counter cold remedies work is by:
a. increasing parasympathetic activity.
b. decreasing sympathetic activity.
c. increasing sympathetic activity.
d. blocking all autonomic activity.

c. increasing sympathetic activity.

92

A general effect of over-the-counter cold remedies is that they:
a. stimulate dopamine receptors.
b. decrease activity of the somatic nervous system.
c. increase activity of the parasympathetic nervous system.
d. increase activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

d. increase activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

93

Given their effects on the nervous system, one side effect of over-the-counter cold remedies is increased:
a. digestive activity.
b. salivation.
c. heart rate.
d. sinus flow.

c. heart rate.

94

What consists of the medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum?
a. Hindbrain
b. Reticular formation
c. Midbrain
d. Forebrain

a. Hindbrain

95

The term rhombencephalon refers to the:
a. brainstem.
b. hindbrain.
c. midbrain.
d. forebrain.

b. hindbrain.

96

The hindbrain consists of the:
a. tectum, tegmentum, and reticular formation.
b. thalamus and hypothalamus.
c. spinal cord and cranial nerves.
d. medulla, pons, and cerebellum.

d. medulla, pons, and cerebellum.

97

What structure is composed of the medulla, pons, the midbrain, and certain central structures of the forebrain?
a. Limbic system
b. Thalamus
c. Brain stem
d. Cerebellum

c. Brain stem

98

Reflexive changes in heart rate and breathing when you are exercising, for example, are regulated by which of the following?
a. Thalamus
b. Forebrain
c. Medulla
d. Pons

c. Medulla

99

The medulla is considered part of the brain rather than the spinal cord because it:
a. developed later in evolution.
b. is contained in the skull.
c. develops from a separate group of neurons.
d. is composed only of interneurons.

b. is contained in the skull.

100

Breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing, and sneezing are all controlled by which structure?
a. Medulla
b. Thalamus
c. Cerebellum
d. Pons

a. Medulla

101

As axons from the spinal cord enter the skull, which structure do they enter?
a. Midbrain
b. Forebrain
c. Medulla
d. Cerebellum

c. Medulla

102

Damage to which hindbrain structure would be most life-threatening?
a. Occipital cortex
b. Medulla
c. Cerebellum
d. Corpus callosum

b. Medulla

103

Which of the following structures is part of the brain stem?
a. Basal ganglia
b. Pons
c. Cerebellum
d. Frontal lobe

b. Pons

104

The medulla controls a number of reflexes through:
a. the midbrain.
b. the forebrain.
c. cranial nerves.
d. skeletal nerves.

c. cranial nerves.

105

The term pons (meaning "bridge") is named as such because:
a. the sensory and motor neurons connect with each other.
b. passing axons skip over the pons.
c. axons within the pons cross over from one side to the other.
d. neurons compete with one another, as in the game of bridge.

c. axons within the pons cross over from one side to the other.

106

The pons acts as a bridge between:
a. the hindbrain and the forebrain.
b. the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
c. one side of the nervous system and the other.
d. the thalamus and the cerebral cortex.

c. one side of the nervous system and the other.

107

Functionally, cranial nerves carry which kind of information?
a. Motor and sensory
b. Motor only
c. Sensory only
d. Sympathetic only

a. Motor and sensory

108

Which major functions are controlled by the cranial nerves?
a. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system
b. Sensation and muscle control of the head
c. Skeletal muscles of the trunk
d. Skeletal muscles of the extremities

b. Sensation and muscle control of the head

109

How many pairs of cranial nerves do humans have?
a. 8
b. 10
c. 12
d. 16

c. 12

110

The cranial nerve nuclei for nerves _____ through _____ are in the medulla and pons.
a. III; XII
b. IV; X
c. I; V
d. V; XII

d. V; XII

111

The nuclei for most of the cranial nerves are located in the:
a. cerebral cortex.
b. hypothalamus.
c. midbrain.
d. pons and medulla.

d. pons and medulla.

112

The nuclei for cranial nerves I through IV are located in the:
a. midbrain and forebrain.
b. hindbrain.
c. pons and medulla.
d. spinal cord.

a. midbrain and forebrain.

113

Vision is to ____ as hearing is to ____.
a. cranial nerve I; cranial nerve X
b. cranial nerve II; cranial nerve VIII
c. cranial nerve II; cranial nerve V
d. cranial nerve IV; cranial nerve VIII

b. cranial nerve II; cranial nerve VIII

114

The reticular formation is contained within the:
a. brain stem.
b. spinal cord.
c. raphe system.
d. cerebellum.

a. brain stem.

115

The ascending portion of the reticular formation sends outputs to:
a. the raphe system.
b. the cerebellum.
c. much of the cerebral cortex.
d. motor areas of the spinal cord.

c. much of the cerebral cortex.

116

The descending portion of the reticular formation is one of several brain areas that control the:
a. sensory areas of the brain.
b. sensory areas of the spinal cord.
c. motor areas of the brain.
d. motor areas of the spinal cord.

d. motor areas of the spinal cord.

117

The ascending portion of the reticular formation:
a. controls the motor areas of the spinal cord.
b. is responsible for the eye muscles.
c. controls the motor areas of the brain.
d. increases arousal and attention.

d. increases arousal and attention.

118

The raphe system sends axons to the:
a. forebrain.
b. reticular formation.
c. spinal cord.
d. cerebellum.

a. forebrain.

119

The raphe system ____ the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli and sends axons to the ____.
a. increases; cerebellum
b. decreases; forebrain
c. decreases; basal ganglia
d. increases; forebrain

d. increases; forebrain

120

The raphe system:
a. increases the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli.
b. is important for balance and coordination.
c. controls the sensory areas of the spinal cord.
d. regulates the rate of production of cerebrospinal fluid.

a. increases the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli.

121

The cerebellum contributes to the control of what function?
a. Hunger
b. Temperature
c. Olfaction
d. Movement

d. Movement

122

Research indicates that the behavioral effects of the cerebellum may be due to its role in:
a. coordinating information from left and right hemispheres.
b. focusing and shifting attention and organizing sensory inputs.
c. interpreting visual stimuli.
d. coordinating the release of hormones.

b. focusing and shifting attention and organizing sensory inputs.

123

If a person has difficulty determining which of two rhythms is faster, it is likely that she suffered damage to the:
a. cerebellum.
b. forebrain.
c. tectum.
d. medulla.

a. cerebellum.

124

Besides problems with balance and coordination, a person with damage to the cerebellum would also likely have problems with:
a. reflexive changes in heart rate.
b. shifting attention between auditory and visual stimuli.
c. amnesia.
d. rational decision-making.

b. shifting attention between auditory and visual stimuli.

125

In which area of the brain would one find the tectum, tegmentum, superior and inferior colliculi, and substantia nigra?
a. Midbrain
b. Hindbrain
c. Reticular formation
d. Forebrain

a. Midbrain

126

The term mesencephalon refers to the:
a. brainstem.
b. hindbrain.
c. midbrain.
d. forebrain.

c. midbrain.

127

Superior colliculus is to ____ as inferior colliculus is to ____.
a. vision; hearing
b. taste; smell
c. vision; touch
d. touch; hearing

a. vision; hearing

128

What type of neurons in the substantia nigra deteriorates in Parkinson's disease?
a. Dopamine
b. Serotonin
c. Norepinephrine
d. Acetylcholine

a. Dopamine

129

A group of forebrain structures is important for motivated and emotional behavior. What is the name given to this group of structures?
a. Limbic system
b. Reticular formation
c. Tegmentum
d. Basal ganglia

a. Limbic system

130

The limbic system is important for:
a. emotional behaviors.
b. motor coordination.
c. coordination between the eyes and ears.
d. perceiving three-dimensional objects.

a. emotional behaviors.

131

The interlinked structures that form a border around the brainstem are referred to as the:
a. basal ganglia
b. hypothalamus
c. limbic system
d. rhombic system

c. limbic system

132

The diencephalon is composed of the:
a. thalamus and basal ganglia.
b. basal ganglia and hypothalamus.
c. thalamus and hypothalamus.
d. thalamus and hippocampus.

c. thalamus and hypothalamus.

133

One function of the thalamus is to:
a. relay sensory information to the cerebral cortex.
b. regulate sleep cycles.
c. direct the secretions of the hypothalamus.
d. moderate emotional outbursts.

a. relay sensory information to the cerebral cortex.

134

The thalamus can be thought of as a(n):
a. relay center
b. ganglia
c. modulation center
d. emotion center

a. relay center

135

Which of the following structures provides the main source of input to the cerebral cortex?
a. Limbic system
b. Medulla
c. Thalamus
d. Hypothalamus

c. Thalamus

136

Damage to the thalamus would most likely result in:
a. abnormal emotional behavior.
b. loss of sensory input to the cortex.
c. abnormal hormone release.
d. difficulty in distinguishing between two rhythms.

b. loss of sensory input to the cortex.

137

Sensory information that is not processed by the thalamus includes:
a. olfactory information.
b. visual information.
c. auditory information.
d. somatosensory information.

a. olfactory information.

138

Olfactory information is processed by the:
a. thalamus via the olfactory bulbs.
b. cortex via the olfactory bulbs.
c. spinal cord.
d. medulla.

b. cortex via the olfactory bulbs.

139

An impairment of eating, drinking, temperature regulation, or sexual behavior suggests possible damage to which brain structure?
a. Midbrain
b. Hippocampus
c. Hypothalamus
d. Cerebellum

c. Hypothalamus

140

By both neural and hormonal pathways, the hypothalamus regulates activity of the:
a. pituitary gland.
b. thalamus.
c. retina.
d. ventricles.

a. pituitary gland.

141

Secretions from which gland will also affect the secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and ovaries or testes?
a. thymus gland
b. pineal gland
c. Pancreas
d. pituitary gland

d. pituitary gland

142

Although the pituitary is often called the master gland, its activity is regulated by the:
a. basal ganglia.
b. hippocampus.
c. hypothalamus.
d. thalamus.

c. hypothalamus.

143

The pituitary gland synthesizes and releases hormones:
a. to the outside of the body.
b. to the thalamus.
c. into the bloodstream.
d. to the hypothalamus.

c. into the bloodstream.

144

Which structure is likely to be damaged in Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and other conditions that impair movement?
a. Thalamus
b. Basal ganglia
c. Limbic system
d. Reticular formation

b. Basal ganglia

145

Damage to the basal ganglia would most likely result in:
a. a movement disorder.
b. problems with visual perception.
c. problems with auditory perception.
d. a loss of pain sensation.

a. a movement disorder.

146

Damage to the basal ganglia would most likely cause problems with:
a. emotion.
b. hearing.
c. vision.
d. movement.

d. movement.

147

The nucleus basalis sends information to the:
a. hypothalamus.
b. basal ganglia.
c. cerebral cortex.
d. hippocampus.

c. cerebral cortex.

148

Patients with Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease have impairments of attention and intellect because of inactivity or deterioration of their ____.
a. Tectum
b. Thalamus
c. Hippocampus
d. nucleus basalis

d. nucleus basalis

149

Which of the following brain areas is most likely affected in Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and other diseases that impair intellect and attention?
a. Nucleus basalis
b. Medulla
c. Occipital lobe
d. Thalamus

a. Nucleus basalis

150

The nucleus basalis is a key part of the brain’s system for:
a. emotional response.
b. attention.
c. visual perception.
d. auditory perception.

b. attention.

151

The hippocampus plays a major role in:
a. innate sexual behavior.
b. temperature regulation.
c. memory.
d. secretion of hormones.

c. memory.

152

An individual has difficulty remembering certain things after brain damage, but all memories stored before the damage are intact. The brain area most likely damaged is the:
a. fornix.
b. hypothalamus.
c. hippocampus.
d. nucleus basalis.

c. hippocampus.

153

The ventricles, central canal, and subarachnoid space are all:
a. part of the forebrain.
b. filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
c. involved in cognitive functioning.
d. filled with blood.

b. filled with cerebrospinal fluid.

154

A fluid-filled channel in the center of the spinal cord is called the:
a. ventricle.
b. central canal.
c. raphe system.
d. meninge.

b. central canal.

155

The choroid plexus:
a. cushions the brain.
b. protects the brain from infection.
c. is another name for the ventricles.
d. forms the cerebrospinal fluid.

d. forms the cerebrospinal fluid.

156

Meningitis is an inflammation of the:
a. cerebrospinal fluid.
b. glia.
c. membranes surrounding the brain.
d. medulla oblongata.

c. membranes surrounding the brain.

157

What is contained in the ventricles of the brain?
a. Glia
b. Cell bodies
c. Dendrites and axons
d. Cerebrospinal fluid

d. Cerebrospinal fluid

158

Membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord are called:
a. CSF.
b. ventricles.
c. meninges.
d. hydrocephali.

c. meninges.

159

Cerebrospinal fluid is gradually reabsorbed in the _____ of the brain.
a. dura
b. subarachnoid space
c. pia
d. cistern

b. subarachnoid space

160

A function of the cerebrospinal fluid is to:
a. cushion the brain.
b. hold blood in reserve for emergencies.
c. maintain the blood-brain barrier.
d. synthesize neurotransmitters.

a. cushion the brain.

161

What causes hydrocephalus?
a. Poorly developed skull bones in an infant
b. Interruption of blood flow to the brain around the time of birth
c. Obstruction in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid
d. Damage to one of the cranial nerves

c. Obstruction in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid

162

Hydrocephalus is usually associated with:
a. a lack of nutrition.
b. an obstruction of the flow of CSF.
c. an excess of hormones.
d. a constriction of the skull bones.

b. an obstruction of the flow of CSF.

163

Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex receives most of its input from the ____ side of the body and controls the muscles on the ____ side.
a. contralateral; ipsilateral
b. ipsilateral; contralateral
c. ipsilateral; ipsilateral
d. contralateral; contralateral

d. contralateral; contralateral

164

The large bundle of axons connecting the two hemispheres of the brain is called the:
a. corpus callosum.
b. limbic system.
c. midbrain.
d. thalamus.

a. corpus callosum.

165

Which of the following is gray matter?
a. The outer surfaces of the cerebral cortex
b. The inner surface of the cerebral cortex
c. The cerebral ventricles
d. The axons of the brainstem and spinal cord

a. The outer surfaces of the cerebral cortex

166

What do the corpus callosum and anterior commissure have in common?
a. They both produce CSF.
b. They both connect the two hemispheres.
c. They are made up of gray matter.
d. They each have six laminae.

b. They both connect the two hemispheres.

167

The ____ constitutes a higher percentage of the brain in primates than in other species of comparable size.
a. cerebral cortex
b. cerebellum
c. basal ganglia
d. thalamus

a. cerebral cortex

168

Across mammalian species, the most constant structure (in terms of relative size) is the:
a. cortex.
b. medulla.
c. cerebellum.
d. thalamus.

c. cerebellum.

169

Which of the following is TRUE about laminae in the cerebral cortex?
a. All cortical areas contain six layers.
b. Odd numbered laminae contain only neurons; even numbered laminae contain only glia.
c. The laminae vary in thickness in different areas.
d. Each layer corresponds to a different sensory modality.

c. The laminae vary in thickness in different areas.

170

Lamina V is thickest in the:
a. primary sensory area.
b. secondary sensory areas.
c. primary motor areas.
d. spinal cord.

c. primary motor areas.

171

Lamina IV is prominent in:
a. all the primary sensory areas.
b. the secondary sensory areas.
c. primary motor areas.
d. spinal cord.

a. all the primary sensory areas.

172

If you could selectively damage the individual laminae of the cortex, damage to which layer would most likely affect visual sensation?
a. Layer IV of the temporal cortex
b. Layer V of the occipital cortex
c. Layer IV of the occipital cortex
d. Layer II of the frontal cortex

c. Layer IV of the occipital cortex

173

All of the cells in a given column in the cerebral cortex:
a. have the same shape.
b. are the same size.
c. are involved in the same function.
d. are connected to one another by a single horizontal cell.

c. are involved in the same function.

174

If a cell in a given column responds to touch on the person's right toe, then another cell in the same column would respond to:
a. touch on the left toe.
b. sounds from the right ear.
c. touch on the right finger.
d. touch on the right toe.

d. touch on the right toe.

175

Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most important for visual information?
a. Occipital
b. Parietal
c. Temporal
d. Frontal

a. Occipital

176

Cortical blindness may result from the destruction of:
a. any part of the cortex.
b. the occipital cortex.
c. the parietal cortex.
d. the central sulcus.

b. the occipital cortex.

177

What deficits does a person suffer after damage to the striate cortex in the occipital lobe?
a. Deafness
b. Blindness
c. Loss of touch and other body sensations
d. Loss of fine motor control

b. Blindness

178

An individual has normal eyes and normal pupillary reflexes but no pattern perception or visual imagery. This person suffers from:
a. imagery deficit syndrome.
b. cortical blindness.
c. parietal lobe degeneration.
d. retinal degeneration.

b. cortical blindness.

179

What is one important difference between people who are blind because of cortical blindness and others who are blind because of problems with their eyes?
a. People with damage to their eyes can still imagine visual scenes.
b. People with cortical blindness are really just pretending to be blind.
c. There is no distinguishable difference between them.
d. People with cortical blindness are also deaf.

a. People with damage to their eyes can still imagine visual scenes.

180

Which part of the cerebral cortex is most important for the sense of touch?
a. Occipital lobe
b. Parietal lobe
c. Temporal lobe
d. Frontal lobe

b. Parietal lobe

181

The postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe is the primary area for which type of sensation?
a. Touch
b. Vision
c. Hearing
d. Smell

a. Touch

182

What is the primary target area on the cerebral cortex for touch and other skin sensations?
a. olfactory bulbs
b. striate cortex
c. precentral gyrus
d. postcentral gyrus

d. postcentral gyrus

183

The _____ monitors all the information about eye, head, and body positions and passes it on to brain areas that control movement.
a. parietal lobe
b. occipital lobe
c. central sulcus
d. precentral gyrus

a. parietal lobe

184

What is the primary target area in the cortex for information regarding muscle-stretch and joint receptors?
a. primary somatosensory cortex
b. occipital lobe
c. central sulcus
d. precentral gyrus

a. primary somatosensory cortex

185

Someone who suddenly loses the ability to identify objects by feeling them has probably suffered damage to what area of the cerebral cortex?
a. parietal lobe
b. temporal lobe
c. frontal lobe
d. corpus callosum

a. parietal lobe

186

A blind person who suddenly loses the ability to read Braille has probably suffered damage to what area of the cerebral cortex?
a. Temporal lobe
b. Frontal lobe
c. Occipital lobe
d. Parietal lobe

d. Parietal lobe

187

What is the primary area of the cerebral cortex for auditory sensations?
a. Occipital
b. Parietal
c. Temporal
d. Frontal

c. Temporal

188

The temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex is the primary target for which kind of sensory information?
a. somatosensory, including touch
b. the simplest aspects of vision
c. gustatory
d. auditory

d. auditory

189

Which lobe seems to be especially involved in the comprehension of spoken language in humans?
a. Occipital
b. Parietal
c. Frontal
d. Temporal

d. Temporal

190

Which lobe contributes to perception of movement and recognition of faces?
a. Occipital lobe
b. Parietal lobe
c. Temporal lobe
d. Frontal lobe

c. Temporal lobe

191

A tumor in the temporal lobe may give rise to:
a. flashes of light.
b. visual hallucinations.
c. olfactory hallucinations.
d. prolonged yawning.

b. visual hallucinations.

192

Visual hallucinations are often associated with tumors in which brain area?
a. temporal lobe
b. corpus callosum
c. parietal lobe
d. frontal lobe

a. temporal lobe

193

Monkeys with Kluver-Bucy syndrome fail to show normal fears and anxieties after damage to the:
a. temporal lobe.
b. parietal lobe.
c. occipital lobe.
d. frontal lobe.

a. temporal lobe.

194

Following damage to the temporal lobe, monkeys that fail to display normal fear of snakes most likely have which of the following?
a. Korsakoff's syndrome
b. Kluver-Bucy syndrome
c. Wertmann syndrome
d. Urbach-Wiethe disease

b. Kluver-Bucy syndrome

195

Which lobe contains the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex?
a. Occipital
b. Parietal
c. Temporal
d. Frontal

d. Frontal

196

Which lobe contains the precentral gyrus?
a. Occipital
b. Parietal
c. Temporal
d. Frontal

d. Frontal

197

The precentral gyrus is essential for:
a. fine movements.
b. coordination between vision and hearing.
c. emotions.
d. hunger and thirst.

a. fine movements.

198

The only area of the cerebral cortex known to receive input from ALL sensory modalities is the:
a. thalamus.
b. prefrontal cortex.
c. striate cortex.
d. parietal lobe.

b. prefrontal cortex.

199

Neurons in the prefrontal cortex ____ than neurons in other cortical areas.
a. are larger in size
b. have more dendritic spines
c. have greater velocities of action potentials
d. are more sensitive to light

b. have more dendritic spines

200

Prefrontal lobotomies were conducted in the United States in an attempt to:
a. restore memory.
b. restrain prisoners.
c. treat severe obesity.
d. treat severe psychiatric disorders.

d. treat severe psychiatric disorders.

201

The prefrontal cortex is important for:
a. the processing of visual information.
b. working memory.
c. language acquisition.
d. recognizing faces.

b. working memory.

202

Knowing that it is appropriate to tackle people on the football field, but not in the classroom, is dependent on functioning of the:
a. prefrontal cortex.
b. occipital cortex.
c. amygdala.
d. somatosensory cortex.

a. prefrontal cortex.

203

Damage to the ____ often causes people to lose their social inhibitions and to ignore the rules of polite conduct.
a. corpus callosum
b. cerebellum
c. prefrontal cortex
d. striate cortex

c. prefrontal cortex

204

One reason why people with prefrontal cortex damage may act impulsively is that they have trouble:
a. remembering who they are.
b. making visual discriminations.
c. maintaining normal hormone levels.
d. adjusting their behavior to different contexts.

d. adjusting their behavior to different contexts.

205

If the prefrontal cortex is damaged, an individual may:
a. have difficulty remembering where they just put their keys.
b. sleep 18-22 hours per day.
c. have impaired vision.
d. lose memory for faces.

a. have difficulty remembering where they just put their keys.

206

A person showers with his clothes on and pours water on the tube of toothpaste instead of on the toothbrush. He probably suffers from damage to the:
a. occipital lobe.
b. striate cortex.
c. prefrontal cortex.
d. parietal cortex.

c. prefrontal cortex.

207

The "binding problem" is the issue of how we:
a. convert sensory information into a pattern that produces movement.
b. perceive visual, auditory and other aspects of a stimulus as a single object.
c. transfer information between the left and right hemispheres.
d. communicate between the word comprehension and word production areas of the brain.

b. perceive visual, auditory and other aspects of a stimulus as a single object.

208

The binding or large-scale integration problem is the difficulty of:
a. getting the different parts of the brain to physically connect during development.
b. understanding how neurons work.
c. knowing how the visual, auditory, and other areas of your brain work together to create a combined perception of a single object.
d. how more than one person can perceive the same object at the same time.

c. knowing how the visual, auditory, and other areas of your brain work together to create a combined perception of a single object.

209

Which of the following is TRUE about the cortical areas that are sometimes known as "association areas"?
a. They do have the main control of thinking and reasoning.
b. They would be better described as additional sensory areas.
c. They form associations between touch and hearing.
d. They integrate information from more than one sensory system.

b. They would be better described as additional sensory areas.

210

One currently popular hypothesis about the binding problem is that binding depends on:
a. increased velocity of action potentials.
b. convergence of all sensory inputs onto a single central processor.
c. synchronized activity in different brain areas.
d. a special kind of activity in the pineal gland.

c. synchronized activity in different brain areas.

211

The area of the brain known to be important for "binding" is the:
a. thalamus.
b. central sulcus.
c. parietal cortex.
d. corpus callosum.

c. parietal cortex.

212

People with damage of the parietal cortex tend to have trouble _____.
a. hearing sounds
b. locating objects in space
c. remembering past events
d. speaking

b. locating objects in space

213

Individuals with parietal lobe damage:
a. have difficulty binding the different aspects of perception.
b. bind different aspects of vision only.
c. become hyperactive.
d. show an increase in synchrony of brain activity.

a. have difficulty binding the different aspects of perception.

214

The postcentral gyrus contains _____ separate representations of the body.
a. one
b. two
c. four
d. six

c. four

215

The study of relating skull anatomy (bumps and depressions) to behavior is known as:
a. neurology.
b. phrenology.
c. psychology.
d. scientology.

b. phrenology.

216

Computerized axial tomography creates an image from:
a. microwaves.
b. infrared rays.
c. x-rays.
d. gamma rays.

c. x-rays.

217

What is the major difference between how phrenologists and today's researchers study the brain?
a. Today’s researchers never use case studies.
b. Phrenologists did not critically examine their data.
c. Today's researchers focus on skull thickness.
d. Phrenologists were not concerned with behavior.

b. Phrenologists did not critically examine their data.

218

If you were interested in determining if the volume of the hippocampus is associated with the amount of stress a person was experiencing, which of the following methods would be the best choice?
a. CAT
b. fMRI
c. PET
d. rCBF

a. CAT

219

Which of the following brain imaging techniques does NOT provide a functional measure of brain activity?
a. MEG
b. EEG
c. fMRI
d. MRI

d. MRI

220

An MRI device creates an image of the brain based on:
a. x-rays.
b. gamma rays.
c. release of electromagnetic energy from atomic nuclei.
d. release of radioactive substances.

c. release of electromagnetic energy from atomic nuclei.

221

An electroencephalograph measures:
a. action potentials in an individual neuron.
b. the electrical resistance of hair.
c. the rate of glucose uptake in active regions of the brain.
d. the average activity of the cells in a given region of the brain.

d. the average activity of the cells in a given region of the brain.

222

Evoked potentials in the brain are most likely to be detected by a(n):
a. CAT scan.
b. MRI.
c. EEG.
d. PET scan.

c. EEG.

223

Which of the following brain imaging techniques measures faint magnetic fields?
a. MEG
b. MRI
c. EEG
d. PET

a. MEG

224

Which of the following methods is dependent upon injecting a radioactive chemical into the blood to measure blood flow?
a. fMRI
b. PET
c. CAT
d. magnetic stimulation

b. PET

225

One major problem with studies that use PET or rCBF is:
a. choosing an appropriate comparison condition.
b. getting the blood to move where you want it.
c. they can be done only while someone is asleep.
d. they are completely noninvasive.

a. choosing an appropriate comparison condition.

226

Which of the following techniques is dependent upon the release of oxygen from hemoglobin molecules?
a. PET
b. rCBF
c. MRI
d. fMRI

d. fMRI

227

A lesion is:
a. an area of brain next to a blood vessel.
b. a cell that lines the surface of a ventricle.
c. a fluid-filled space in the brain.
d. an area that has been damaged.

d. an area that has been damaged.

228

An ablation is:
a. an area of brain next to a blood vessel.
b. a brain area that has been removed.
c. a fluid-filled space in the brain.
d. an area that has been damaged.

b. a brain area that has been removed.

229

A stereotaxic instrument would most likely be used for:
a. placing an electrode in the brain.
b. assessing regional blood flow.
c. testing reflexes.
d. measuring blood pressure.

a. placing an electrode in the brain.

230

Researchers using a biochemical method to direct a mutation to a particular gene are using the ____ approach.
a. sham lesion
b. gene-splicing
c. lesion
d. gene-knockout

b. gene-splicing

231

The purpose of creating a sham lesion is to:
a. destroy a brain area believed to be interfering with normal behavior.
b. assess the effects of introducing an electrode.
c. test the stereotaxic map.
d. create a path for injecting chemicals.

b. assess the effects of introducing an electrode.

232

How does the method of transcranial magnetic stimulation of brain areas differ from magnetic inactivation?
a. Brain activation results from long, intense magnetic stimulation.
b. Brain inactivation results from mild, brief magnetic stimulation.
c. The magnets are simply reversed.
d. Brain activation results from mild, brief magnetic stimulation.

d. Brain activation results from mild, brief magnetic stimulation.

233

Based on brain-to-body weight ratio, it appears that:
a. language is a by-product of this ratio.
b. humans have the highest ratio of all species.
c. this ratio is a constant across vertebrates.
d. intelligence is not simply an outcome of this ratio.

d. intelligence is not simply an outcome of this ratio.

234

Which of the following species has the highest brain-to-body ratio?
a. Humans
b. Frogs
c. squirrel monkey
d. Elephant

c. squirrel monkey

235

So far, it appears that the brain feature most strongly correlated with intelligence in humans is the:
a. volume of the hippocampus.
b. brain-to-body ratio.
c. brain weight.
d. amount of gray matter.

d. amount of gray matter.

236

Women on the average have a greater density of neurons in part of the _____.
a. hippocampus
b. temporal lobe
c. frontal lobe
d. gray matter

b. temporal lobe